Theory Theorists Diagram Terms Implications Examples Resources Credits

Adult Learning Theory

Adult learning theory mainly focuses on how adults learn. It is based on the assumptions that adult learners focus more on the processes rather than contents. This is because adults bring in real life experiences to the learning environment. Thus, strategies like collaborative learning, role-play, simulations, case study and self-evaluations are useful to help facilitate adult learning.

Theorists

Malcolm Shepherd Knowles (1913-1997)
Knowles had a significant impact on the field of adult education. He was determined to discuss the fact that adults learn differently than children and thus bringing in the concept of andragogy
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K. Patricia Cross
Cross was a very influential figure in the field of adult education. Her publications provided the basis to develop adult non-traditional study opportunities. Her most prominent publication was her 1981 "Adults as Learners".
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Diagram

Terms

Adult Learning: Art of teaching mature men and women. Men and women who are of the age of working, marring, and voting.
Andragogy: Art and science of teaching adult. It is teacher-student directed and centered model.
Pedagogy: Art and science of teaching children. It is teacher-directed and centered model.
Techagogy: Art and science of teaching and learning in the technology-based education, regardless of who is learning.

Theory Theorists Diagram Terms Implications Examples Resources Credits

Adult Learning Theory Implications

  1. Provide learning objectives.
  2. Provide multiple navigation controls in a web-based environment.
  3. Include review question and exercise, with immediate feedback.
  4. Include context based practice items to help transfer knowledge to the new environment.
  5. Include simulations to give learners opportunity to apply their knowledge to the task.

Examples

Example 1
Question: Mr. Smith is currently teaching an online class in History. For the class he needs to edit images using image-editing software to meet the size requirements in the online environment. He heard that Online Learning Lab (OLL), and instructional design lab sponsored by the University of South Alabama, helps faculty members to implement technology in teaching environments. Provide suggestions how OLL staff can organize the teaching content for Mr. Smith.
Feedback: For this answer there is no one correct answer. The best answer to this would be:
OLL Staff should present objectives to the learners first. OLL Staff should inform Mr. Smith why image-editing techniques are important to learn and how he is going to learn and master those techniques.
Also, OLL Staff should provide practice items using some clips from History books.
Finally, the Staff could also demonstrate how to edit pictures using Adobe Photoshop in context dependent scenario

Examples 2
Question
: Mr. Vincent is developing an online course on management for working adults in a local company. Give him suggestions on how he can organize his course for the above-mentioned learners.
Feedback:
There is no correct answer for this, but one of the best answers to this would be:

  1. Mr. Vincent should first of all be able to provide multiple navigation paths to reach the objectives, outcomes, and scenarios.
  2. Mr. Vincent should also provide multiple assessment options for outcomes and scenarios.
  3. One good teaching strategy that Mr. Vincent could use would be to provide open-ended questions to threaded discussions to facilitate collaborative learning.
  4. Another good strategy to help learners learn in a hands-on environment would be for Mr. Vincent to provide group based projects to simulate real life scenarios.
Theory Theorists Diagram Terms Implications Examples Resources Credits

Resources

  1. DiLello, A., & Vast, K. (2003). Using adult learning theory, Media tech publishing inc. Retrieved on November 9, 2005 , from http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_
    webonly.asp?articleid=176&zoneid=78
  2. Knowles, M. Androgogy. Retrieved on October 20, 2005, from http://tip.psychology.org/knowles.html
  3. Cross, K. P., Adult Learning. Retrieved on October 20, 2005, from http://tip.psychology.org/cross.html
  4. Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2003). E-Learning and the Science of Instruction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
  5. Peckham, K. & Fallon, D. (2004). ID Maps - A New Methodology for Learner Centered Design. Pedagogy and Andragogy. Retrieved on October 21, 2005, from http://ausweb.scu.edu.au/aw04/papers/refereed/lund/andragogy.gif or click here for image
  6. Nasseh, B. (1999). Breaking through - 2000 and beyond: Internet-Generated and Adult Learners Will create major challenges for higher education institutions in the 21st century. Muncie, Indiana: Ball State University. Retrieved on October 21, 2005, from http://www.bsu.edu/classes/nasseh/study/cumrec99/img025.JPG or click here for image
Theory Theorists Diagram Terms Implications Examples Resources Credits

Credits

Terms and Definitions

  1. Nasseh, B. (1999). Breaking through - 2000 and beyond: Internet-Generated and Adult Learners Will create major challenges for higher education institutions in the 21st century. Muncie, Indiana: Ball State University. Retrieved on October 21, 2005, from http://www.bsu.edu/classes/nasseh/study/cumrec99/img025.JPG
  2. Smith, M. K. (2002). Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and andragogy. The encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved on October 20, 2005, from www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm

Theorists

Knowles

  1. Dover, K. H. (2006) Dr. Malcolm S. Knowles – Biography. A New York Times Company. Retrieved on March, 29, 2006, from http://adulted.about.com/cs/adultlearningthe/a/knowles.htm
  2. Fiorini, D. (2003). Malcolm Knowles. Retrieved on March 29, 2006, from http://www-distance.syr.edu/pvitamk.html
  3. Smith, M. K. (2002). Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and andragogy. The encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved on October 20, 2005, from www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm

Cross

  1. Hiemstra, R. (2006). Three Underdeveloped Models for Adult Learning. Retrieved on March 2, 2006, from http://home.twcny.rr.com/hiemstra/ndacesm.html
  2. Rick, A. (2005). ACDEA Fellow - NADE 2000. Retrieved on March 29, 2006, from http://www.pvc.maricopa.edu/~lsche/resources/lc_awards/ fellowawards/awardsfellows_h_boylan.htm

Development of Diagrammatic Representations

  1. Diagram Animation: Chuck Collins
  2. Diagram Design: Suhana Chikatla
  3. Diagrammatic representation: Idea use and modified from: Peckham, K. & Fallon, D. (2004). ID Maps - A new methodology for learner centered design. Retrieved on March 23, 2006, from http://ausweb.scu.edu.au/aw04/papers/refereed/lund/paper.htm

Content Development for Theory

  1. Suhana Chikatla
  2. Taimur Ismail

Web Developer

Poonwilas "Kay" Amarasing

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