Theory Theorists Diagram Terms Implications Examples Resources Credits

Social Learning Theory

The social learning theory emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Thus it focuses on learning by observation and modeling. The theory originally evolved from behaviorism but now includes many of the ideas that cognitivists also hold; as a result it is some times called social cognitive learning.

Social learning theory talks about how both environmental and cognitive factors interact to influence human learning and behavior. It focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. It considers that people learn from one another, including such concepts as observational learning, imitation, and modeling (Abbott, 2007).

Theorist

Albert Bandura

Albert Bandura was born on December 4, 1925, in the small town of Mundare in northern Alberta, Canada. His father was from Poland and mother from the Ukraine. He was educated in a small elementary school and the only one high school (20 students and 2 teachers) in town, with minimal resources, yet a remarkable success rate.


During summer vacations he worked in several places acquiring carpentry in Edmonton skills and filling holes protecting the Alaskan Highway in the Yukon. While, dealing with lot of people and a horrifying encounter with bears, he developed appreciation for psychopathology of everyday life.

In search of understanding human nature he received his bachelors’ degree in Psychology from the University of British Columbia in 1949. He went on to the University of Iowa, where he obtained his Ph.D. in 1952. It was there that he came under the influence of the behaviorist tradition and learning theory.

While at Iowa, he met Virginia Varns, an instructor in the nursing school. They married in 1952 and later had two daughters, Mary (1954) and Carol (1958). After graduating, he took a postdoctoral position at the Wichita Guidance Center in Wichita, Kansas.

In 1953, he started teaching at Stanford University, and became full professor as well. While there, he collaborated with his first graduate student, Richard Walters, resulting in their first book, Adolescent Aggression, in 1959. He became the president of the American Psychology Association (APA) in 1973, and received the APA’s Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions in 1980.

At 80 years of age, Professor Bandura continues to research and teach at Stanford University to this day.

Theory Theorists Diagram Terms Implications Examples Resources Credits

Diagram

Theory Theorists Diagram Terms Implications Examples Resources Credits

Terms

Reciprocal causation: According to Bandura, behavior can also influence both the environment and the person. Each of the three variables: environment, person, behavior influence each other. (p, be, e)

Self efficacy: Self efficacy means learners self confidence towards learning. People are more likely to engage in certain behaviors when they believe they are capable of implementing those behaviors successfully, this means that they have high self-efficacy.

Self regulation: Self-regulation is when the individual has his own ideas about what is appropriate or inappropriate behavior and chooses actions accordingly. There are several aspects of self regulation.

Modeling: Modeling means doing what others do. There are different types of models.

      • live model: and actual person demonstrating the behavior.
      • symbolic model: a person or character portrayed in a medium such as television, videotape, computer programs, or a book.

      Imitation: An individual uses another person’s behavior as a discriminative stimulus for an imitative response. The observer is then reinforced in some way for display imitation.

Imitaion: An individual uses another person’s behavior as a discriminative stimulus for an imitative response. The observer is then reinforced in some way for display imitation.

Vicarious reinforcement – behavior is acceptable

Vicarious punishment – behavior is unacceptable

Theory Theorists Diagram Terms Implications Examples Resources Credits

Implications

Taken from (Cunia, 2007)

Theory Theorists Diagram Terms Implications Examples Resources Credits

Examples

Advertisements/TV commercials are the most commonexamples of Social Learning Theory. We observe (watch)them, and then copy them. Commercials suggest thatdrinking a certain beverage or using a particular hairshampoo will make us popular and win the admiration ofattractive people. Depending upon the componentprocesses involved (such as attention or motivation),we may model the behavior shown in the commercial andbuy the product being advertised. (Kearsley, 2007)

Language learning is another common example of SocialLearning Theory. Where a student tries to imitate ormimic his/her teacher while the teacher demonstrates.To display imitation a teacher says a worda. “gestalt theory” (teacher)b. Geeestalt TheoRee (students response)c. The teacher praises the effort (reinforcement).

Theory Theorists Diagram Terms Implications Examples Resources Credits

Resources

taken from the Universität zu Köln
http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/paedsem/psych/medien/medpsy/bandura/index.htm
  1. Bandura, A. (2006). Adolescent development from an agentic perspective. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.). Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents, (Vol. 5., pp. 1-43). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
    Bandura, A. (2006). Going global with social cognitive theory: From prospect to paydirt. In S. I. Donaldson, D. E. Berger, & K. Pezdek (Eds.). The rise of applied psychology: New frontiers and rewarding careers (pp. 53-70). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Bandura, A. (2006). Guide to the construction of self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.). Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents, (Vol. 5., pp. 307-337). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
    Bandura, A. (2006). A murky portrait of human cruelty. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 225-226.
    Bandura, A. (2006). Toward a psychology of human agency. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 164-180.
    Bandura, A.(2006). On integrating social cognitive and social diffusion theories. In A Singhal & J. Dearing (Eds.). Communication of innovations: A journey with Ev Rogers. Beverley Hills; Sage Publications.
    Bandura, A. (2006). Self-efficacy in health functioning. In S. Ayers, et al. (Eds.). Cambridge handbook of psychology, health & medicine (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Bandura, A. (2006). Social cognitive theory. In S. Rogelberg (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
    Bandura, A. (2006). Towards a psychology of human agency. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1.
    Bandura, A. (2006). Training in terrorism through selective moral disengagement. In J.F. Forest (Ed.). The making of a terrorist: recruitment, training and root causes (Vol. 2, pp. 34-50). Westport, CT: Praeger.
    McAlister, A. J., Bandura, A., & Owen, S. V. (2006). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in support of military force: The impact of September 11. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology.
    Osofsky, M. J., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2005). The role of moral disengagement in the execution process. Law and Human Behavior, 29, 371-393.
    Bandura, A. (2005). Evolution of social cognitive theory. In K. G. Smith & M. A. Hitt (Eds.), Great minds in management (pp. 9-35). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bandura, A. (2005). Growing centrality of self regulation in health promotion and disease prevention. European Health Psychologist, Issue 1,11-12.
    Bandura, A. (2005). Primacy of self-regulation in health promotion transformative mainstream. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54, 245-254.
    Caprara, G. V., Regalia, C., Scabini, E., & Bandura, A. (2005). Impact of adolescents' filial self-efficacy on quality of family functioning and satisfaction. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15, 71-97.
    Caprara, G. V., Regalia, C., Scabini, E., Barbaranelli, C., & Bandura, A. (2004). Assessment of filial, parental, marital, and collective family efficacy beliefs. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 20, 247-261.
    Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory of gender development and functioning. In A.H. Eagly, A. Beall, & R. Sternberg (Eds.). The psychology of gender (2nd ed., pp.92-119) New York: Guilford.
    Bandura, A. (2004). The growing primacy of perceived efficacy in human self-development, adaptation and change. In M. Salanova, R. Grau, I.M. Martinez, E. Cifre, S. Llorens and M. García-Renedo (Eds.) Nuevos horizontes en la investigactión sobre autoeficacia. (pp. 33-51) Castellón: Colección Psyique.
    Bandura, A. (2004). Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Education & Behavior, 31, 143-164.
    Bandura, A. (2004). Modeling. In E. W. Craighead & C. B. Nemeroff (Eds.). The concise Corsini Encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral sciences (pp. 575-577). New York: Wiley.
    Bandura, A. (2004). Role of selective moral disengagement in terrorism and counterterrorism. In F. M. Mogahaddam & A. J. Marsella (Eds.), Understanding terrorism: Psychological roots, consequences and interventions (pp. 121-150). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.
    Bandura, A. (2004). Selective exercise of moral agency. In T. A. Thorkildsen & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Nurturing morality (pp. 35-57). Boston: Kluwer Academic.
    Bandura, A. (2004). Self-efficacy. In E. W. Craighead & C. B. Nemeroff (Eds.). The concise Corsini Encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral sciences. (pp. 859-862). New York: Wiley.
    Bandura, A. (2004). Self-efficacy. In N. B. Anderson (Ed.) Encyclopedia of health & behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 708-714). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
    Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory for personal and social change by enabling media. In A. Singhal, M. J. Cody, E. M. Rogers, & M. Sabido (Eds.), Entertainment-education and social change: History, research, and practice (pp. 75-96). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory of posttraumatic recovery: The role of perceived self-efficacy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 1129-1148-630.
    Benight, C. C., & Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory of posttraumatic recovery: The role of perceived self-efficacy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 1129-1148.
    Bandura, A. (2004). Swimming against the mainstream: The early years from chilly tributary to transformative mainstream. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 613-630.
    Bandura, A., & Bussey, K. (2004). On broadening the cognitive, motivational, and sociostructural scope of theorizing about gender development and functioning: Comment on Martin, Ruble, and Szkrybalo (2002). Psychological Bulletin, 130, 690-701.
    Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Gerbino, M., & Pastorelli, C. (2003). Role of affective self-regulatory efficacy in diverse spheres of psychosocial functioning. Child Development, 74, 769-782.
    Bandura, A. (2003). Observational learning. In J. H. Byrne (Ed.), Encyclopedia of learning and memory. (2nd ed., pp. 482-484). New York: Macmillan.
    Bandura, A. (2003). On the psychosocial impact and mechanisms of spiritual modeling. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 13, 167-173.
    Bandura, A., & Locke, E. (2003). Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 87-99.
    Caprara, G. V., Camillo, R., & Bandura, A., (2002). Longitudinal impact of perceived self-regulatory efficacy on violent conduct. American Psychological Association, 7, 63-69.
    Caprara, G.V., Regalia, C., & Bandura, A. (2002). Longitudinal impact of perceived self-regulatory efficacy on violent conduct. European Psychologist, 7, 63-69.
    Bandura, A. (2002). Environmental sustainability by sociocognitive deceleration of population growth. In P. Schmuch & W. Schultz (Eds.), The psychology of sustainable development (pp. 209-238). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
    Bandura, A. (2002). Growing primacy of human agency in adaptation and change in the electronic era. European Psychologist, 7, 1-16.
    Steffen, A. M., McKibbin, C., Zeiss, A. M., Gallagher-Thompson, D., & Bandura, A. (2002). The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy: Reliability and validity studies. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 57B, 82-86.
    Bandura, A. (2002). Observational learning. In J. H. Byrne (Ed.), Encyclopedia of learning and memory (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
    Bandura, A. (2002). Reflexive empathy: On predicting more than has ever been observed. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, , 25, 24-25.
    Bandura, A. (2002). Selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Moral Education, 31, 101-119.
    Bandura, A. (2002). Self-efficacy and health. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (pp. 13815-13820). Oxford: Elsevier Science.
    Bandura, A. (2002). Self-efficacy assessment. In R. Fernandez-Ballesteros (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychological assessment. London: Sage Publications.
    Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory and clinical psychology. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (pp. 14250-14254). Oxford: Elsevier Science.
    Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 151, 269-290.
    Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., & Zsolnai, L. (2002). Corporate transgressions. In L. Zsolnai (Ed.), Ethics in the economy: Handbook of business ethics (pp. 151-164). Oxford: Peter Lang Publishers.
    Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory of mass communications. In J. Bryant, & D. Zillman (Eds.). Media effects: Advances in theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 121-153). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Fernández-Ballesteros, R., Díez-Nicolás, J., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Bandura, A. (2002). Determinants and structural relation of personal efficacy to collective efficacy. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51, 107-125.
    Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children's aspirations and career trajectories. Child Development, 72, 187-206.
    Bandura, A. (2001). Swimming against the mainstream: The early years in chilly waters. In W. T. O'Donohue, D. A. Henderson, S. C. Hayes, J. E. Fisher, & L. J. Hayes (Eds.), History of the behavioral therapies: Founders' personal histories (pp. 163-182). Reno, NV: Context Press.
    Debowski, S., Wood, R., & Bandura, A. (2001). Impact of guided exploration and enactive exploration on self-regulatory mechanisms and information acquisition through electronic search. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1129-1141.
    Bandura, A. (2001). The changing face of psychology at the dawning of a globalization era, Canadian Psychology, 42, 12-24.
    Bandura, A. (2001). The evolution of social cognitive theory. In K.G. Smith & M. A. Hitt (Eds.). The Oxford handbook of management theory: The process of theory development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Bandura, A. (2001). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales (Revised). Available from Frank Pajares, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322.
    Bandura, A. (2001). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In G. V . Caprara (Ed.), La valutazione dell 'autoeffcacia [The assessment of self-efficacy] (pp. 15-37) Trento, Italy: Erickson.
    Bandura, A. (2001). Self-efficacy and health. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (Vol. 20, pp. 13815-13820). Oxford: Elsevier Science.
    Pastorelli, C., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Rola, J., Rozsa, S., & Bandura, A. (2001). Structure of children's perceived self-efficacy: A crossnational study. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 17, 87-97.
    Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52,1-26. In html form from Annual Review Psychology (must be accessed from edu domain).
    Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory and clinical psychology. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (Vol. 21, pp. 14250-14254). Oxford: Elsevier Science.
    Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory and media effects. In J. R. Schement (Ed.), Encyclopedia of communication and information. New York: Macmillan.
    Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media Psychology, 3, 265-298.
    Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children's aspirations and career trajectories. Child Development, 72, 187-206.
    Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., & Regalia, C. (2001). Sociocognitive self-regulatory mechanisms governing transgressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 125-135.
    Lorig, K. R., Ritter, P., Stewart, A. L., Sobel, D. S., Brown, Jr., B. W., Bandura, A., Gonzales, V. M ., Laurent, D. D., & Holman, H. R. (2001). Chronic disease self-management programs: 2-year health status and health care utilization outcomes. Medical Care, 39, 1217-1223.
    Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2000). Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement. Psychological Science, 11, 302-306.
    Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., & Zsolnai, L. (2000). Corporate transgressions through moral disengagement. Journal of Human Values, 6, 57-63.
    Bandura, A. (2000). Cultivate self-efficacy for personal and organizational effectiveness. In E. A. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of principles of organization behavior (pp. 120-136). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. .
    Bandura, A. (2000). Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 75-78.
    Bandura, A. (2000). Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory. In P. Norman, C. Abraham, & M. Conner (Eds.), Understanding and changing health behaviour (pp. 299-339). Reading, UK: Harwood.
    Bandura, A. (2000). Modeling. In E. W . Craighead & C. B. Nemeroff (Eds.), Encyclopedia of psychology and neuroscience (3rd ed., pp. 967-968). New York: Wiley.
    Bandura, A. (2000).Portrait of sociocognitive development from an agentic perspective. In G. V. Caprara, & A. Fonzi (Eds.), Adolescenza: L'Eta Sosposa [Adolescence: The suspended age] (pp. 27-58). Firenze: Giunti.
    Bandura, A. (2000). Psychological aspects of prognostic judgments. In R. W. Evans, D. S. Baskin, & F. M. Yatsu (Eds.), Prognosis of neurological disorders (2nd ed., pp.11-27). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bandura, A. (2000). Self-efficacy. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bandura, A. (2000). Self-efficacy. In E. W . Craighead & C. B. Nemeroff (Eds.), Encyclopedia of psychology and neuroscience (3rd ed., pp. 1474-1476). New York: Wiley.
    Bandura, A. (2000). Self-regulation of motivation and action through perceived self-efficacy. In E. A. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of principles of organization behavior (pp. 120-136). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Bandura, A. (2000). Social cognitive theory. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bandura, A. (2000). Self-efficacy: The foundation of agency. In W. J. Perrig & A. Grob (Eds.), Control of human behaviour, mental processes and consciousness (pp. 17-33) Mahwak, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Bandura, A., & Cervone, D. (2000). Self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms of governing the motivational effects of goal systems. In T. E. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Motivational science: Social and personality perspectives. Key readings in social psychology (pp. 202-214). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
    Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & John, O. P. (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications.
    Bandura, A. (1999). Moral disengagement. In I. W. Charny (Ed.), Encyclopedia of genocide (pp. 415-418). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio.
    Bandura, A. (1999). Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review. [Special Issue on Evil and Violence], 3, 193-209.
    Bandura, A. (1999). Psychological aspects of prognostic judgments. In R. W. Evans, D. S. Baskin, & F. M. Yatsu (Eds.), Prognosis of neurological disorders (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bandura, A. (1999). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), The self in social psychology. Key readings in social psychology (pp. 285-298). Philadelphia: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
    Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 21-41.
    Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of personality. In D. Cervone & Y. Shoda, (Eds.), The coherence of personality: Social-cognitive bases of consistency, variability, and organization (pp. 185-241). New York: Guilford Press.
    Bandura, A., Pastorelli, C., Barbaranelli, C., & Caprara, G. V. (1999). Self-efficacy pathways to childhood depression. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 76, 258-269.
    Bandura, A. (1999). A sociocognitive analysis of substance abuse: An agentic perspective. Psychological Science, 10, 214-217.
    Lorig, K. R., Sobel, D. S., Stewart, A. L., Brown, Jr. B. W., Bandura, A., Ritter, P., Gonzalez, V. M., Laurent, D. D., & Holman, H. R. (1999). Evidence suggesting that a chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing hospitalization: A randomized trial. Medical Care, 37, 5-14.
    Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & John, O. P. (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications.
    Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation, Psychological Review, 106, 676-713.
    Caprara, G. V., Scabini, E., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., & Bandura, A. (1999). Autoefficacia percepita emotiva e interpersonale e buon funzionamento sociale [Emotional and interpersonal perceived self-efficacy and social well-being]. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 26, 769-789.
    Caprara, G. V., Scabini, E., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Regalia, C., & Bandura, A. (1999). Perceived emotional and interpersonal self-efficacy and good social functioning. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 26, 769-789.
    Epel, E. S., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1999). Escaping homelessness: The influences of self-efficacy and time perspective on coping with homelessness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 575-596.
    Caprara, G. V., Scabini, E., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Regalia, C., & Bandura, A. (1998). Impact of adolescents' perceived self-regulatory efficacy on familial communication and antisocial conduct. European Psychologist, 3, 125-132.
    Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, M., Gerbino, M., Pastorelli C., Regalia, C., & Bandura, A. (1998). Social cognitive determinants of psychological and social development: Beliefs of personal efficacy. Adolescenza, 9, 182-207.
    Bandura, A. (1998, August). Exercise of agency in accenting the positive. Invited address delivered at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.
    Pastorelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Bandura, A. (1998). The measurement of self-efficacy in school-age children: A preliminary contribution. [Italian]. Eta evolutiva, 61, 28-40.
    Bandura, A. (1998). Exercise of agency in personal and social change. In E. Sanavio (Ed.), Behavior and cognitive therapy today: Essays in honor of Hans J. Eysenck. (pp. 1-29). Oxford: Anonima Romana.
    Bandura, A. (1998). Exploration of fortuitous determinants of life paths, Psychological Inquiry, 9, 95-99.
    Bandura, A. (1998). Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Psychology and Health, 13, 623-649.
    Bandura, A. (1998). Personal and collective efficacy in human adaptation and change. In J. G. Adair, D. Belanger, & K. L. Dion (Eds.), Advances in psychological science: Vol. 1. Personal, social and cultural aspects (pp. 51-71). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
    Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control . New York: Freeman. [Bandura situates self-efficacy within a theory of personal and collective agency that operates in concert with other sociocognitive factors in regulating human well-being and attainment. In this volume, Bandura also addresses the major facets of agency, the nature and structure of self-efficacy beliefs, their origins and effects, the processes through which such self-beliefs operate, and the modes by which they can be created and strengthened. In addition, he reviews a vast body of research on each of these aspects of agency in diverse applications of the theory]
    Bandura, A. (1997). The anatomy of stages of change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 8-10.
    Bandura, A. (1997). Personal efficacy in psychobiologic functioning. In G. V. Caprara (Ed.), Bandura: A leader in psychology (pp. 43-66). Milan, Italy: Franco Angeli.
    Bandura, A. (1997). Reflections on moral disengagement. In G. V. Caprara (Ed.), Bandura: A leader in psychology (pp. 23-41). Milano, Italy: Franco Angeli.
    Clark , M., Ghandour, G., Miller, N. H., Taylor, C. B., Bandura, A., DeBusk, R. F. (1997). Development and evaluation of a computer-based system for dietary management of hyperlipidemia. Journal of the American Dietary Association, 97, 146-150.
    Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy and health behaviour. In A. Baum, S. Newman, J. Wienman, R. West, & C. McManus (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of psychology, health and medicine (pp. 160-162). Cambridge: Cambridge
    Bandura, A. (1996). Enhancing human functioning the social cognitive way. International Journal of Psychology, 31, 4631-4631.
    Bandura, A. (1996). Failures in self-regulation: Energy depletion or selective disengagement?Psychological Inquiry, 7, 20-24.
    Bandura, A. (1996). Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. International Journal of Psychology, 31, 3881-3881.
    Bandura, A. (1996). Ontological and epistemological terrains revisited, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 27, 323-345. A must read!!
    Bandura, A. (1996). Reflections on human agency. In J. Georgas & M. Manthouli (Eds.), Contemporary psychology in Europe: Theory, research and applications (pp. 194-210). Seattle, WA: Hogrefe & Huber.
    Bandura, A. (1996). Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficacy. In G. H. Jennings & D. Belanger (Eds.), Passages beyond the gate: A Jungian approach to understanding the nature of American psychology at the dawn of the new millennium (pp. 96-107). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster.
    Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 364-374.
    Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67, 1206-1222.
    Bandura, A. (1996). Social cognitive theory of human development. In T. Husen & T. N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (2nd ed., pp. 5513-5518) Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 364-374.
    Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67, 1206-1222.
    Bandura, A. (Ed.) (1995b), Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Bandura, A. (1995a). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
    Bandura, A. (1995). Comments on the crusade against the causal efficacy of human thought, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 26, 179-190.
    Caprara, G. V., Pastorelli C., & Bandura, A. (1995). La misura del disimpegno morale in et` evolutiva [The measurement of moral disengagement in children]. Et Evolutiva, 18-29.
    Bandura, A. (1995). Exercise of personal and collective efficacy in changing societies. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in changing societies (pp. 1-45). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Bandura, A. (1995). Modeling. In A. S. R. Manstead & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Blackwell encyclopedia of social psychology (p. 409). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Lachman, M. E., Bandura, M., Weaver, S. L., & Elliott, E. (1995). Assessing memory control beliefs: The memory controllability inventory. Aging and Cognition, 2, 67-84.
    Bandura, A. (1995). On rectifying conceptual ecumenism. In J. E. Maddux (Ed.), Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research and application (pp. 347-375). New York: Plenum.
    Bandura, A. (Ed.). (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [purchase at amazon.com]
    Bandura, A. (1995). Social learning. In A. S. R. Manstead & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Blackwell encyclopedia of social psychology (pp. 600-606). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
    Bandura, A. (1994). Regulative function of perceived self-efficacy. In M. G. Rumsey, C. B. Walker, & J. H. Harris (Eds.), Personal selection and classification (pp. 261-271). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In R. J. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 368-369). New York: Wiley.
    Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).
    Bandura, A., & McDonald, F. J. (1994). Influence of social reinforcement and the behavior of models in shaping children's moral judgments. In B. Puka (Ed.), Defining perspectives in moral development. Moral development: A compendium, Vol. 1 (pp. 136-143). New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.
    Bandura, A. (1994). Social cognitive theory and exercise of control over HIV infection. In R. J. DiClemente & J. L. Peterson (Eds.), Preventing AIDS: Theories and methods of behavioral interventions (pp. 25-59). New York: Plenum. [This is a revised and updated chapter of the 1992 chapter]
    Zimmerman, B. J., & Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory influences on writing course attainment. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 845-862.
    DeBusk, R. F., Miller, N. H., Superko, H. R., Dennis, C. A., Thomas, R. J., Lew, H. T., Berger III, W. E., Heller, R. S., Rompf, J., Gee, D., Kraemer, H. C., Bandura, A., Ghandour, G., Clark, M., Shah, R. V., Fisher, L., & Taylor, C. B. (1994). A case-management system for coronary risk factor modification after acute myocardial infarction. Annals of Internal Medicine, 120, 721-729.
    Kahn, R. L., & Bandura, A. (1994). Nathan Maccoby (1912-1992). American Psychologist, 49, 140.
    Bandura, A. (1994). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant & D. Zillman (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 61-90). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117-148.
    Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.
    Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal-setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 663-676.
    Bandura, A. (1992). Exercise of personal agency through the self-efficacy mechanism. In R. Schwarzer (Hrsg.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (S. 3-38). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
    Bandura, A. (1992). A social cognitive approach to the exercise of control over AIDS infection. In R. DiClemente (Ed.), Adolescents and AIDS: A generation in jeopardy (pp. 89-116). Beverly Hills: Sage.
    Bandura, A. (1992). Exercise of personal agency through the self-efficacy mechanism. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 3-38). Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere.
    Bandura, A. (1992). Observational learning. In L. R. Squire (Ed.), Encyclopedia of learning and memory. New York: Macmillan.
    Bandura, A. (1992). On rectifying the comparative anatomy of perceived control. Applied and Preventive Psychology: Current Scientific Perspectives, 1, 121-126.
    Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1992). Self-regulatory mechanisms governing gender development. Child Development, 63, 1236-1250.
    Lachman, M. E., Weaver, S. L., Bandura, M. M., Elliott, E., & Lewkowicz, C. J. (1992). Improving memory and control beliefs through cognitive restructuring and self-generated strategies. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 47, 293-299.
    Bandura, A. (1992). Psychological aspects of prognostic judgments. In R. W. Evans, D. S. Baskin, & F. M. Yatsu (Eds.), Prognosis of neurological disorders (pp. 13-28). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bandura, A. (1992). Self-efficacy mechanism in psychobiologic functioning. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 355-394). Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere.
    Bandura, A. (1992). Social cognitive theory and social referencing. In S. Feinman (Ed.), Social referencing and the social construction of reality in infancy (pp. 175-208). New York: Plenum Press.
    Bandura, A. (1992). Social cognitive theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Six theories of child development: Revised formulations and current issues (pp. 1-60). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Jourden, F. J., Bandura, A., & Banfield, J. T. (1991). The impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory factors and motor skill acquisition. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 8, 213-226.
    Bandura, A. (1991). Self-efficacy conception of anxiety. In Schwarzer, R. & Wicklund, R. A. (Hrsg.), Anxiety and self-focused attention (S. 89-110). New York: Harwood.
    Bandura, A. (1991). Human agency: The rhetoric and the reality. American Psychologist, 46, 157-162 (html).
    Bandura, A. (1991). Self-efficacy conception of anxiety. In R. Schwarzer & R. A. Wicklund (Eds.), Anxiety and self-focused attention. (pp. 89-110). New York: Harwood Academic Publishers.
    Bandura, A., & Jourden, F. J. (1991). Self-regulatory mechanisms governing the impact of social comparison on complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 941-951.
    Rubin, J. Z., Friedland, N., Bandura, A., Ross, D., Ross, S. A., & Baron, R. A. (1991). Aggression. In W. A. Lesko (Ed.), Readings in social psychology: General, classic, and contemporary selections (pp. 282-315). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Skoler, G. D., Bandura, A., Ross, D., Ross, S. A., & Baron, R. A. (1991). Aggression. In W. A. Lesko (Ed.), Readings in social psychology: General, classic, and contemporary selections (pp. 296-326). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Bandura, A. (1991). Self-efficacy mechanism in physiological activation and health-promoting behavior. In J. Madden, IV (Ed.), Neurobiology of learning, emotion and affect (pp. 229-270). New York: Raven, 1991.
    Bandura, A. (1991). Self-efficacy, impact of self-beliefs on adolescent life paths. In R. M. Lerner, A. C. Peterson, & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Encyclopedia of adolescence (Vol. 2, pp. 995-1000). New York: Garland.
    Bandura, A. (1991). Self-regulation of motivation through anticipatory and self-regulatory mechanisms. In R. A. Dienstbier (Ed.), Perspectives on motivation: Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 38, pp. 69-164). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. [Large download, 5 MB]
    Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development (Vol. 1, pp. 45-103). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum..
    Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248-287.
    Bandura, A. (1991). Sociocognitive theory of human adaptation: A citation-classic commentary on social learning theory. Current Contents/Social & Behavioral Sciences, 23, 10.
    Bandura, A. (1991). The changing icons in personality psychology. In J. H. Cantor (Ed.), Psychology at Iowa: Centennial essays (pp. 117-139). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Ozer, E. M., & Bandura, A. (1990). Mechanisms governing empowerment effects: A self-efficacy analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 472-486.
    Bandura, A. (1990). Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of control over AIDS infection. Evaluation & Program Planning, 13, 9-17.
    Bandura, A. (1990). Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of personal agency. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 2, 128-163.
    Wiedenfeld, S. A., O'Leary, A., Bandura, A., Brown, S., Levine, S., & Raska, K. (1990). Impact of perceived self-efficacy in coping with stressors on components of the immune system. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1082-1094.
    Wood, R. E., Bandura, A., & Bailey, T. (1990). Mechanisms governing organizational performance in complex decision-making environments. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 46, 181-201.
    Carroll, W. R., & Bandura, A. (1990). Representational guidance of action production in observational learning: A causal analysis. Journal of Motor Behavior, 2, 85-97.
    Bandura, A. (1989). A social cognitive theory of action. In J. P. Forgas & M. J. Innes (Eds.), Recent advances in social psychology: An international perspective (pp. 127-138). North Holland: Elsevier.
    Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175-1184. [This is a classic in the history of psychology.]
    Bandura, A. (1989). Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of control over AIDS infection. In V. M. Mays, G. W . Albee, & S. F. Schneider (Eds.), The primary prevention of AIDS: Psychological approaches (pp. 128-141). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Bandura, A. (1989). Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of personal agency. The Psychologist: Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 2, 411-424.
    Bandura, A. (1989). Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficac . Developmental Psychology, 25, 725-739 (html).
    Bandura, A. (1989). Self-regulation of motivation and action through internal tandards and goal systems. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Goals concepts in personality and social psychology (pp. 19-85). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. In E. Barnouw (Ed.), International encyclopedia of communications (Vol. 4, pp. 92-96). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Wood, R. E., & Bandura, A. (1989). Impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory mechanisms and complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 407-415.
    Wood, R. E., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, 14, 361-384.
    Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development. Vol. 6. Six theories of child development (pp. 1-60). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Groebel & P. Winterhoff-Spurk (Eds.), Empirische Medienpsychologie (pp. 7-32). Munich, Germany: Psychologie Verlags Union.
    Bandura, A., & Wood, R. E. (1989). Effect of perceived controllability and performance standards on self-regulation of complex decision-making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 805-814.
    Bandura, A., Valentine, E. R., Nesdale, A. R., Farr, R., Goodnow, J. J., Lloyd, B., & Duveen, G. (1989). Social cognition. In J. P. Forgas & J. M. Innes (Eds.), Recent advances in social psychology: An international perspective (pp. 127-188). Amsterdam, Netherlands: North-Holland.
    Bandura, A. (1988). Organizational applications of social cognitive theory. Australian Journal of Management, 13, 275-302.
    Bandura, A. (1988). Perceived self-efficacy: Exercise of control through self-belief. In J. P. Dauwalder, M. Perrez, & V. Hobi (Eds.), Annual series of European research in behavior therapy (Vol. 2, pp. z27-59). Amsterdam/Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.
    Bandura, A. (1988). Self-efficacy conception of anxiety. Anxiety Research, 1, 77-98.
    Bandura, A. (1988). Self-regulation of motivation and action through goal systems. In V. Hamilton, G. H. Bower, & N. H. Frijda (Eds.), Cognitive perspectives on emotion and motivation (pp. 37-61). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Carroll, W. R., & Bandura, A. (1988). Effect of factors and motor rehearsal on observational learning. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 26, 492.
    Bandura, A., Cioffi, D., Taylor, C. B., & Brouillard, M. E. (1988). Perceived self-efficacy in coping with cognitive stressors and opioid activation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 479-488.
    Bandura, A., O'Leary, A., Taylor, C. B., Gauthier, J., & Gossard, D. (1987). Perceived self-efficacy and pain control: Opiod and nonopioid mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 563-571.
    Carroll, W. R., & Bandura, A. (1987). Cognitive determinants of observational learning: A casual analysis. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 25, 352.
    Carroll, W. R., & Bandura, A. (1987). Translating cognition into action: The role of visual guidance in observational learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 19, 385-398.
    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Translations: Spanish.
    Bandura, A. (1986).The social learning perspective: Mechanisms of aggression. In H. Toch (Ed.), Psychology of crime and criminal justice (pp. 198-236). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
    Bandura, A., & Cervone, D. (1986). Differential engagement of self-reactive influences in cognitive motivation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 38, 92-113.
    Taylor, C. B., Bandura, A., Ewart, C. K., Miller, N. H., & DeBusk, R. F. (1985). Exercise testing to enhance wives' confidence in their husbands' cardiac capabilities soon after clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology, 55, 635-638.
    Carroll, W. R., & Bandura, A. (1985). Role of timing of visual monitoring and motor rehearsal in observational learning of action patterns. Journal of Motor Behavior, 17, 269-281.
    Bandura, A. (1985). Explorations in self-efficacy. In S. Sukemune (Ed.), Advances in social learning theory. Tokyo: Kaneko-shoho.
    Bandura, A. (1985). Model of causality in social learning theory. In S. Sukemune (Ed.), Advances in social learning theory. Tokyo: Kaneko-Shoho.
    Bandura, A. (1985). Model of causality in social learning theory. In M. J. Mahoney and A. Freeman (Eds.), Cognition and psychotherapy (pp. 81-99). Plenum Publishing Corporation.
    Bandura, A. (1985). Observational learning. In S. Sukemune (Ed.), Advances in social learning theory. Tokyo: Kaneko-shoho.
    Bandura, A. (1985). Reciprocal determinism. In S. Sukemune (Ed.), Advances in social learning theory. Tokyo: Kaneko-shoho.
    Bandura, A., Taylor, C. B., Williams, S. L, Mefford, I. N., & Barchas, J. D. (1985). Catecholamine secretion as a function of perceived coping self-efficacy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 406-414.
    Bandura, A. (1984). Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 8, 231-255.
    Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1984). Influence of gender constancy and social power on sex-linked modeling. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1292-1302.
    Bandura, A. (1983). Self-efficacy determinants of anticipated fears and calamities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 464-469.
    Bandura, A., & Cervone, D. (1983). Self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms governing the motivational effects of goal systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1017-1028.
    Telch, M. J., Bandura, A., et al. (1982). Social demand for consistency and congruence between self-efficacy and performance, Behavior Therapy, 13, 694-701.
    Bandura, A. (1982). Self-appraisal and self-regulation. In J. Suls (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147. [A classic article published in APA's flagship journal
    Carroll, W. R., & Bandura, A. (1982). The role of visual monitoring in observational learning of action patterns: Making the unobservable observable. Journal of Motor Behavior, 14, 153-167.
    Bandura, A., Reese, L., & Adams, N. E. (1982). Microanalysis of action and fear arousal as a function of differential levels of perceived self-efficacy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 5-21.
    Bandura, A., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 586-598.
    Bandura, A., Adams, N. E., Hardy, A. B., & Howells, G. N. (1980). Tests of the generality of self-efficacy theory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 39-66. [Important piece looking at generality of self-efficacy across different areas of functioning]
    Bandura, A., Adams, N. E., Hardy, A. B., & Howells, G. N. (1980). Tests of the generality of self-efficacy theory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 39-66. [Important piece looking at generality of self-efficacy across different areas of functioning]
    Bandura, A. (1979). Self-referent mechanisms in social learning theory. American Psychologist, 34, 439-441.
    Bandura, A., & Rosenthal, T. L. (1978). Psychological modeling: Theory and practice. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (2nd ed. pp. 621-658). New York: Wiley.
    Bandura, A. (1978). Reflections on self-efficacy. In S. Rachman (Ed.), Advances in behavior research and therapy (Vol. 1., pp. 237-269). Oxford: Pergamon.
    Bandura, A. (1978). The self-system in reciprocal determinism, American Psychologist, 33, 344-358 . [Classic article in the history of psychology.]
    Bandura, A. (1978). Social learning theory of aggression. Journal of Communication, 28, 12-29.
    Rosenthal, T. L., & Bandura, A. (1978). Psychological modeling: Theory and practice. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis (2nd ed., pp. 621-658). New York: Wiley.
    Bandura, A., & Adams, N. E. (1977). Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 287-308.
    Bandura, A., Adams, N. E., & Beyer, J. (1977). Cognitive processes mediating behavioral change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 125-139.
    Bandura, A., & Adams, N. E. (1977). Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 287-308.
    Bandura, A., Adams, N. E., & Beyer, J. (1977). Cognitive processes mediating behavioral change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 125-139.
    Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Translations: Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Spanish.
    Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
    Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. In B. B. Wolman & L. R. Pomroy (Eds.), International encyclopedia of psychiatry, psychology, psychoanalysis, and neurology (Vol. 10). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    Bandura, A. (1977). Self-reinforcement: The power of positive personal control. In P. G. Zimbardo & F. L. Ruch (Eds.), Psychology and life (9th ed.). Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.
    Bandura, A., & Simon, K. M. (1977). The role of proximal intentions in self-regulation of refractory behavior. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 177-193.
    Bandura, A. (1976). Effecting change through participant modeling. In J. D. Krumboltz & C. E. Thoresen (Eds.), Counseling methods. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Bandura, A. (1976). Self-reinforcement: Theoretical and methodological considerations. Behaviorism, 4, 135-155. [Bandura's classic exposition of the process of self-reinforcement]
    Bandura, A. (1976). Social learning analysis of aggression. In E. Ribes-Inesta & A. Bandura (Eds.), Analysis of delinquency and aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Bandura, A. (1976). Social learning perspective on behavior change. In A. Burton (Ed.), What makes behavior change possible? (pp. 34-57). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Bandura, A., Mahoney, M. J., & Dirks, S. J. (1976). Discriminative activation and maintenance of contingent self-reinforcement. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14, 1-6.
    Bandura, A., & Ribes-Inesta, E. (Eds.) (1976). Analysis of delinquency and aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. [purchase at amazon.com]
    Bandura, A., Underwood, B., & Fromson, M. E. (1975). Disinhibition of aggression through diffusion of responsibility and dehumanization of victims, Journal of Research in Personality, 9, 253-269.
    Bandura, A. (1975). The ethics and social purposes of behavior modification. In C. M. Franks & G. T. Wilson (Eds.), Annual review of behavior therapy theory and practice (Vol. 3). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Bandura, A., Jeffery, R. W., & Gajdos, E. (1975). Generalizing change through participant modeling with self-directed mastery. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 13, 141-152.
    Mahoney, M. J., Bandura, A., Dirks, S. J., & Wright, C. L. (1974). Relative preference for external and self-controlled reinforcement in monkeys. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 12, 157-163.
    Bandura, A., Jeffery, R. W., & Wright, C. L. (1974). Efficacy of participant modeling as a function of response induction aids. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 56-64.
    Bandura, A., Jeffery, R. W., & Bachicha, D. L. (1974). Analysis of memory codes and cumulative rehearsal in observational learning. Journal of Research in Personality, 7, 295-305.
    Bandura, A. (1974). Behavior theory and the models of man. American Psychologist, 29, 859-869.
    Bandura, A. (1974). The process and practice of participant modeling treatment. In J. H. Cullen [Ed.], Experimental behaviour: A basis for the study of mental disturbance. Dublin, Ireland: Irish University Press.
    Bandura, A., & Mahoney, M. J. (1974). Maintenance and transfer of self-reinforcement functions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 12, 89-97.
    Bandura, A., Mahoney, M. J., Dirks, S. J., & Wright, C. L. (1974). Relative preference for external and self-controlled reinforcement in monkeys. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 12, 157-163.
    Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Bandura, A., & Jeffery, R. W. (1973). Role of symbolic coding and rehearsal processes in observational learning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26, 122-130.
    Bandura, A., & Barab, P. G. (1973). Processes governing disinhibitory effects through symbolic modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82, 1-9.
    Bandura, A. (1973). Social learning theory of aggression. In J. F. Knutson (Ed.), The control of aggression: Implications from basic research. Chicago: Aldine.
    Bandura, A., & Barab, P. G. (1973). Processes governing disinhibitory effects through symbolic modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82, 1-9.
    Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Translations: German.
    Mahoney, M. J., & Bandura, A. (1972). Self-reinforcement in pigeons. Learning and Motivation, 3, 93-303.
    Bandura, A., & Barab, P. G. (1971). Conditions governing nonreinforced imitation. Developmental Psychology, 5, 244-255.
    Bandura, A. (1971). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.
    Bandura, A., & Barab, P. G. (1971). Conditions governing nonreinforced imitation. Developmental Psychology, 5, 244-255.
    Bandura, A. (1971). Analysis of modeling processes. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Psychological modeling: Conflicting theories. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.
    Bandura, A. (1971). Behavior therapy from a social learning perspective. Proceedings of the XIXth International Congress of Psychology. London, England.
    Bandura, A. (Ed.). (1971). Psychological modeling: Conflicting theories. New York: Aldine-Atherton.
    Bandura, A. (1971). Psychotherapy based upon modeling principles. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (pp. 653-708). New York: Wiley.
    Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.
    Bandura, A. (1971). Vicarious and self-reinforcement processes. In R. Glaser (Ed.), The nature of reinforcement (pp. 228-278). New York: Academic Press. [Classic]
    Bandura, A. (1970). Modeling theory: Some traditions, trends, and disputes. In W. S. Sahakian (Ed.), Psychology of learning: Systems, models, and theories. Chicago: Markham.
    Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Translations: Portuguese, Spanish
    Bandura, A. (1969). Social learning of moral judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11, 275-279.
    Bandura, A., Blanchard, E. B., & Ritter, B. (1969). Relative efficacy of desensitization and modeling approaches for inducing behavioral, affective, and attitudinal changes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 173-199.
    Bandura, A. (1969). Social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Bandura, A. (1969). Social-learning theory of indemnificatory processes. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Bandura, A. (1968). A social learning interpretation of psychological dysfunctions. In P. London & D. L. Rosenhan (Eds.), Foundations of abnormal psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Bandura, A. (1968). Imitation. In D. L. Sills (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social sciences (Vol. 7). New York: Macmillan.
    Bandura, A., & Menlove, F. L. (1968). Factors determining vicarious extinction of avoidance behavior through symbolic modeling. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 99-108.
    Bandura, A. (1968). Modeling approaches to the modification of phobic disorders. In R. Porter (Ed.), The role of learning in psychotherapy: Ciba Foundation Symposium. London: Churchill.
    Bandura, A. (1968). Reinforcement therapy: An antidote for therapeutic pessimism. (Review of Reinforcement Therapy by O. I. Lovaas). Contemporary Psychology, 13, 36-39.
    Bandura, A., & Perloff, B. (1967). Relative efficacy of self-monitored and externally imposed reinforcement systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 111-116.
    Bandura, A., Grusec, J. E., & Menlove, F. L. (1967). Some social determinants of self-monitoring reinforcement systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 449-455.
    Bandura, A., Grusec, J. E., & Menlove, F. L. (1967). Vicarious extinction of avoidance behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 16-23.
    Bandura, A., & Whalen, C. K. (1966). The influence of antecedent reinforcement and divergent modeling cues on patterns of self-reward. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 373-382.
    Bandura, A., & Harris, M . B. (1966). Modification of syntactic style. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 4, 341-352.
    Bandura, A., & Rosenthal, T. L. (1966). Vicarious classical conditioning as a function of arousal level. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 54-62.
    Bandura, A., Grusec, J. E., & Menlove, F. L. (1966). Observational learning as a function of symbolization and incentive set. Child Development, 37, 499-506.
    Bandura, A. (1966). Role of vicarious learning in personality development. Proceedings of the XVIIIth International Congress of Psychology: Social factors in the development of personality. Moscow, USSR.
    Bandura, A., & Mischel, W. (1965). Modification of self-imposed delay of reward through exposure to live and symbolic models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 698-705. [A pioneering study of the social origins of children's self-motivation and self-regulation
    Bandura, A. (1965). Vicarious processes: A case of no-trial learning. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 1-55). New York: Academic Press.
    Bandura, A., & Kupers, C. J. (1964). Transmission of patterns of self-reinforcement through modeling. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69, 1-9.
    Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Translations: Spanish
    Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Bandura, A. (1963). The role of imitation in personality, The Journal of Nursery Education, 18(3).
    Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1963). A comparative test of the status envy, social power, and secondary reinforcement theories of identificatory learning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 527-534.
    Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1963). Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 3-11. [This is a classic article in the history of psychology.
    Bandura, A., & McDonald, F. J. (1963). The influence of social reinforcement and the behavior of models in shaping children's moral judgments. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 274-281.
    Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Aggression. In Child psychology: The sixty-second yearbook of the national society for the study of education, Part I . Chicago: The National Society for the Study of Education.
    Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1963). Vicarious reinforcement and imitative learning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 601-607.
    Bandura, A., & Winder, C. L., Ahmad, F. Z., & Rau, L. C. (1962). Dependency of patients, psychotherapists' responses, and aspects of psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 26, 129-134.
    Bandura, A. (1962). Social learning through imitation. In M . R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582. [This is a classic article in the history of psychology. In it, Bandura introduces the Bobo Doll experiments.
    Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582. [This is a classic article in the history of psychology. In it, Bandura introduces the Bobo Doll experiments.
    Bandura, A., & Huston, A. C. (1961). Identification as a process of incidental learning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 311-318.
    Bandura, A., Lipsher, D. H., & Miller, P. E. (1960). Psychotherapists' approach- avoidance reactions to patients' expression of hostility. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 1-8.
    Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1959). Adolescent aggression. New York: Ronald Press.
    Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1958). Dependency conflicts in aggressive delinquents. Journal of Social Issues, 14, 52-65.
    Bandura, A., & Benton, A. L. (1953). "Primary" and "secondary" suggestibility. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 43, 336-340.
    Miller, N. & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation. New Haven, NJ: Yale University Press.
    Bandura, A. (In preparation). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control.
Theory Theorists Diagram Terms Implications Examples Resources Credits

Credits

    Diagramatic representation: Barrett, E. C. (2003). Principles of Instruction and Learning – Web Quest. A concept map. Available online at http://suedstudent.syr.edu/~ebarrett/ide621/images/firstconceptmap.gif Ormrod, J. E., (1999). Human learning. New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall, pp.114-144. Bandura Biodata. (2007). Universität zu Köln.http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/paedsem/psych/medien/medpsy/bandura/index.htm Kearsley, G. (n.d.) Social Learning Theory (A. Bandura). Retrieved September 24, 2007 from http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html. Abbott, L. (2007). Social Learning Theory taken from the University of Texas at Austin, Retrieved on September, 24, 2007 available online at http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/Social.html Boeree, G. (2006). Personality theories. Albert Bandura. Availabale online at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html Cunia, E. (2007). Social Learning Theory – Web Quest.

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