- Art of Writing Proposals
Social Science Research Council
- Basic Elements of Grant Writing
Corporation for Public Broadcasting
- Grant Writing Guide
- Grant Writing Guide
University of Washington
- Proposal Writing Short Course
The Foundation Center
- The Foundation Center's FAQs
The Foundation Center
- NIAID How To Write A Grant
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
- Resources for New Investigators
National Institutes of Health website on NIH grant applications
- NSF Proposal Writing Guide
National Science Foundation
Proposal Application Major Components
- The sponsor application guidelines provide the framework for the sequence and content of the proposal. While the format will vary from one agency to another, a sponsor usually requests certain basic information be grouped into components that are common to most proposals. The typical components of a proposal include:
Institutional Information & Certification
Sponsors usually provide a Face Page or Cover Sheet form to provide institutional information about the applicant (the University), the PI and/or Project Director and the Authorized Organizational Representative authorizing submission of the proposal. The form also often includes references to various legal assurances and certifications the University must agree to follow when conducting the project. This is especially true when the sponsor will fund the project with federal dollars. The form may or may not require a physical pen-and-ink signature by the PI and an Institutional Official.
Abstract / Summary (Critical Proposal Section)
The abstract is a significant part of the proposal. The reviewers will probably read this section first to gain an overview of the proposed project. A clear and concise abstract will immediately capture the attention of the reviewers. The content should center upon the objectives and purposes of the project and how these will be achieved.
Introduction / Review of Literature
A limited explanation of the subjects, the theory behind the proposed research, and the efforts that have been devoted to the proposed research in the past are typical kinds of explanations. This section must demonstrate that the applicant has a familiarity with current thinking on the topic and an awareness of how this project relates to present trends.
Needs Statement / Statement of the Problem (Critical Proposal Section)
The needs statement explains why the program, services, or research is needed at this time, or in this particular school, or for this particular population. The sponsoring agency must be convinced that there is a measured or verifiable need for the activities described in the remainder of the proposal and the proposal responds to the agency’s identified needs.
The purposes, the aims, and the goals of the project are contained in this section. In establishing objectives, it is essential to be specific. Avoid vagueness, generalities or platitudes.
Plan of Action / Methodology
The activities or methodologies to be employed must be carefully detailed. Reviewers are especially concerned about the relevance of these to the project objectives. The most important guideline concerning the procedures section is that it must detail how the project will be carried out in a logical sequence.
The personnel section of the proposal should convince the reviewers that the project team members have the expertise and resources to conduct the proposed activities. For some sponsors, it is important to properly classify or categorize the project personnel based upon each one’s role and contribution. Sponsors also frequently want this section to contain a brief biographical sketch of the project’s key personnel.
The emphasis should be on the institutional facilities that are beneficial to the project. Facilities such as libraries, special service units, research apparatus, special purpose equipment, laboratories, conference space, or media equipment may be described in a proposal.
The time frame should specify dates for completion of all activities or tasks and their sequence and interdependence. The ability to stay on schedule is one of the most important aspects of project management.
An important part of a project is a well-designed plan for evaluation. Sponsoring agencies highly stress the importance of proper assessment of the achievement of project goals and objectives. Evaluation can be formative (process) and summative (product). Formative evaluation provides feedback as a program progresses; it facilitates appropriate decision making on a day-to-day basis. Summative evaluation measures program attainments, including the outcome of the project and the achievement of goals.
To be useful, research results must be disseminated. This section of the proposal should describe who will be informed of project results, which results will be reported, and in what form the results will be disseminated.
Budget and Budget Justification
Use the budget forms provided by the sponsor or the sponsor’s format as specified in its guidelines to present a correct & concise budget that details the costs necessary to carry out the project. Refer to the Office of Sponsored Programs website for details on developing budgets for a sponsored project.
Resumes or C.V.
Include as an attachment resumes or C.V. for all key project personnel, if appropriate. Some sponsors want this information in the “Personnel” section and others want it as separate attachments. Some sponsors also specify the length of a resume/CV or its particular format. Always follow the sponsor’s specifications from the program guidelines.
Letters of Endorsement or Commitment / Collaboration
If the proposed project includes collaborations with other institutions or organizations, many sponsors want a letter from an appropriate official endorsing the collaboration. If the project will subcontract work to another entity, sponsors may want a letter from the prospective subcontractor entity that commits to its participation. Generic Letters-of- Support from persons not affiliated with the project may or may not be wanted; check closely the sponsor’s guidelines.
Check the guidelines carefully to see what is and is not allowed as an appendix and follow those specifications closely. Do not use an appendix to circumvent page limitations elsewhere in the proposal. Important information may not be read if it is included within an appendix instead of being within the body of the narrative. The agency may not return any original or one-of-a-kind attachments.
- OSP Basic Grant Writing Tutorial Slides
OSP Grant Writing Smart Guide
- Basic Grant Terminology