The first step in any successful college writing venture is reading the assignment. While this sounds like a simple task, it can be a tough one. This handout will help you unravel your assignment directions and help you begin to craft an effective response. Much of the following advice will involve translating typical assignment terms and practices into meaningful clues to the type of writing your instructor expects.
Consider adopting two habits that will serve you well--regardless of the assignment, department, or instructor:
- Read the assignment carefully as soon as you receive it.
Do not put this task off--reading the assignment at the beginning
will save you time, stress, and problems later. An assignment can
look pretty straightforward at first, particularly if the instructor
has provided lots of information. That does not mean it will not take
time and effort to complete; you may even have to learn a new skill
to complete the assignment.
- Ask the instructor about anything you do not understand. Do not hesitate to approach your instructor. Instructors would prefer to set you straight before you hand the paper in. That's also when you will find their feedback most useful.
Believe it or not, many assignments follow a basic format. Assignments often begin with an overview of the topic, include a central verb or verbs that describe the task, and offer some additional suggestions, questions, or prompts to get you started:
1. An overview of some kind
The instructor might set the stage with some general discussion of the subject of the assignment, introduce the topic, or remind you of something pertinent that you have discussed in class. For example:
"Throughout history, gerbils have played a key role in politics" or "In the last few weeks of class, we have focused on the evening wear of the housefly ..."
2. The task of the assignment
Pay attention; this part tells you what to do when you write the paper. Look for the key verb or verbs in the sentence. Words like analyze, summarize, or compare direct you to think about your topic in a certain way. Also pay attention to words such as how, what, when, where, and why; these words specify tasks. (See the section in this handout titled "Key Terms" for more information.)
"Analyze the effect that gerbils had on the Russian Revolution," or "Suggest an interpretation of housefly undergarments that differs from Darwin's."
3. Additional material to think about
Here you will find some questions to use as springboards as you begin to think about the topic. Instructors usually include these questions as suggestions rather than requirements. Do not feel compelled to answer every question unless the instructor asks you to do so. Pay attention to the order of the questions. Sometimes they suggest the thinking process your instructor imagines you will need to follow to begin thinking about the topic."You may wish to consider the differing views held by Communist gerbils vs. Monarchist gerbils," or "Can there be such a thing as the housefly garment industry' or is it just a home-based craft?"
4. Style tips
These are the instructor's comments about writing expectations: "Be concise," "Write effectively," or "Argue furiously."
5. Technical details
These instructions usually indicate format rules or guidelines."Your paper must be typed in Palatino font on gray paper, and must not exceed 600 pages. It is due on the anniversary of Mao Tse-tung's death."
The assignment's parts may not appear in exactly this order, and each part may be very long or really short. Nonetheless, being aware of this standard pattern can help you understand what your instructor wants you to do.
Ask yourself a few basic questions as you read, and jot down the answers on the assignment.
- Why did your instructor ask you to do this particular task?
- Who is your audience?
- What kind of evidence do you need to support your ideas?
- What kind of writing style is acceptable?
- What are the absolute rules of the paper?
Try to look at the question from the point of view of the instructor. Recognize that your instructor has a reason for giving you this assignment and for giving it to you at a particular point in the semester. In every assignment, the instructor has a challenge for you. This challenge could be anything from demonstrating an ability to think clearly to demonstrating an ability to use the library. See the assignment not as a vague suggestion of what to do but as an opportunity to show that you can handle the course material as directed. Paper assignments give you more than a topic to discuss--they ask you to do something with the topic. Keep reminding yourself of that. Be careful to avoid the other extreme as well: do not read more into the assignment than what is there.
1. Why did your instructor ask you to do this particular task?
Of course, your instructor has given you an assignment so that he or she will be able to assess your understanding of the course material and give you an appropriate grade. But there is more to it than that. Your instructor has tried to design a learning experience of some kind. Your instructor wants you to think about something in a particular way for a particular reason. If you read the course description at the beginning of your syllabus, review the assigned readings, and consider the assignment itself, you may begin to see the plan, purpose, or approach to the subject matter that your instructor has created for you. If you still aren't sure of the assignment's goals, try asking the instructor. For help with this, see our handout on asking for feedback at http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/feedback.html.
Given your instructor's efforts, it helps to answer the question: What is my purpose in completing this assignment? Is it to gather research from a variety of outside sources and present a coherent picture? Is it to take material I have been learning in class and apply it to a new situation? Is it to prove a point one way or another? Key words from the assignment can help you figure this out. Look for key terms in the form of active verbs that tell you what to do.
Key Terms: Finding Those Active Verbs
Here are some common active verbs and definitions to help you think about assignment terms:
Information Words ask you to demonstrate what you know about the subject, such as who, what, when, where, how, and why.
- define give the subject's meaning (according to someone or something). Sometimes you have to give more than one view on the subject's meaning
- explain why/how give reasons why or examples of how something happened
- illustrate give descriptive examples of the subject and show how each is connected with the subject
- summarize briefly list the important ideas you learned about the subject
- trace outline how something has changed or developed from an earlier time to its current form
- research gather material from outside sources about the subject, often with the implication or requirement that you will analyze what you have foundRelation Words ask you to demonstrate how things are connected.
- compare show how two or more things are similar (and, sometimes, different)
- contrast show how two or more things are dissimilar
- apply use details that you've been given to demonstrate how an idea, theory, or concept works in a particular situation
- cause show how one event or series of events made something else happen
- relate show or describe the connections between thingsInterpretation Words ask you to defend ideas of your own about the subject. Do not see these words as requesting opinion alone (unless the assignment specifically says so), but as requiring opinion that is supported by concrete evidence. Remember examples, principles, definitions, or concepts from class or research and use them in your interpretation.
- assess summarize your opinion of the subject and measure it against something
- prove, justify give reasons or examples to demonstrate how or why something is the truth
- evaluate, respond state your opinion of the subject as good, bad, or some combination of the two, with examples and reasons
- support give reasons or evidence for something you believe (be sure to state clearly what it is that you believe)
- synthesize put two or more things together that have not been put together in class or in your readings before; do not just summarize one and then the other, and say that they are similar or different--you must provide a reason for putting them together that runs all the way through the paper
- analyze determine how individual parts create or relate to the whole, figure out how something works, what it might mean, or why it is important
- argue take a side and defend it with evidence against the other side
More Clues to Your Special Purpose
As you read the assignment, think about what the teacher does in class.
- What kinds of textbooks or coursepack did your instructor choose for the course--ones that provide background information, explain theories or perspectives, or argue a point of view?
- In lecture, does your instructor ask your opinion, try to prove her point of view, or use keywords that show up again in the assignment?
- What kinds of assignments are typical in this discipline? Social science classes often expect more research. Humanities classes thrive on interpretation and analysis.
- How do the assignments, readings, and lectures work together in the course? Instructors spend time designing courses, sometimes even arguing with their peers about the most effective course materials. Figuring out the overall design to the course will help you understand what each assignment is meant to achieve.
2. Who is your audience?
Now, what about your reader? Most undergraduates think of their audience as the instructor. True, your instructor is a good person to keep in mind as you write. But for the purposes of a good paper, think of your audience as someone like your roommate: smart enough to understand a clear, logical argument, but not someone who already knows exactly what is going on in your particular paper. Remember, even if the instructor knows everything there is to know about your paper topic, he or she still has to read your paper and assess your understanding. In other words, teach the material to your reader.
Aiming a paper at your audience happens in two ways: you make decisions about the tone and the level of information you want to convey.
- Tone means the "voice" of your paper. Should you be chatty, formal, or objective? Usually you will find some happy medium--you do not want to alienate your reader by sounding condescending or superior, but you do not want to, um, like, totally wig on the man, you know? Eschew ostentatious erudition: some students think the way to sound academic is to use big words. Be careful--you can sound ridiculous, especially if you use the wrong big words.
- The level of information you use depends on who you think your audience is. If you imagine your audience as your instructor and she already knows everything you have to say, you may find yourself leaving out key information that can cause your argument to be unconvincing and illogical. But you do not have to explain every single word or issue. If you are telling your roommate what happened on the X-Files last night, you do not say, "First Mulder walked into the room. Then the purple, well-shod alien turned around. Then Mulder smiled slightly. A clock was ticking." You also do not say, "This guy found some aliens. The end." Find some balance of useful details that support your main point.
The Grim Truth
With a few exceptions (some lab and ethnography reports), you are probably being asked to make an argument. You must convince your audience. It is easy to forget this aim when you are researching and writing; as you become involved in your subject matter, you may become enmeshed in the details and focus on learning or simply telling the information you have found. You need to do more than just repeat what you have read. Your writing should have a point, and you should be able to say it in a sentence. Sometimes instructors call this sentence a "thesis" or a "claim."
So, if your instructor tells you to write about some aspect of oral hygiene, you do not want to just list: "First, you brush your teeth with a soft brush and some peanut butter. Then, you floss with unwaxed, bologna-flavored string. Finally, gargle with bourbon." Instead, you could say, "Of all the oral cleaning methods, sandblasting removes the most plaque. Therefore it should be recommended by the American Dental Association." Or, "From an aesthetic perspective, moldy teeth can be quite charming. However, their joys are short-lived."
Convincing the reader of your argument is the goal of academic writing. It doesn't have to say "argument" anywhere in the assignment for you to need one. Look at the assignment and think about what kind of argument you could make about it instead of just seeing it as a checklist of information you have to present.
3. What kind of evidence do you need?
There are lots of different types of proof or evidence. Here are several common types:
- Einstein proof--a famous (or not so famous) smart person agrees with you or says something you can use to back up your point. This kind of evidence can come from course materials or outside research. Be sure to cite these scholars as sources (see the Writing Center handouts on citation and documentation--MLA, APA, or CBE--if needed).
- Case proof--a case in which your point works or the other person's point does not work to demonstrate your idea. These may come from your experience, hypothetical situations, or from outside sources.
- Fact proof--statistics, "objective" information. You will need lots of documentation here and probably several trips to the library.
- For example proof--examples from the subject or text you are studying to back up your focused point. For example (!), you might use Ophelia's scenes to explain Hamlet's depression.
Professors will usually tell you what kind of proof they want. If the assignment tells you to "do research," head quickly to the library.
Make sure you are clear about this part of the assignment, because your use of evidence will be crucial in writing a successful paper. You are not just learning how to argue; you are learning how to argue with specific types of materials and ideas.
4. What kind of writing style is acceptable?
You cannot always tell from the assignment just what sort of writing style your instructor expects. The instructor may be really laid back in class but still expect you to sound formal in writing. Or the instructor may be fairly formal in class and ask you to write a reflection paper where you need to use "I" and speak from your own experience.
Try to avoid false associations of a particular field with a style ("art historians like wacky creativity," or "political scientists are boring and just give facts") and look instead to the types of readings you have been given in class. No one expects you to write like Plato just use the readings as a guide for what is standard or preferable to your instructor. When in doubt, ask your instructor about the level of formality she expects.
No matter what field you are writing for or what facts you are including, if you do not write so that your reader can understand your main idea, you have wasted your time. So make clarity your main goal. For specific help with style, see our handout on "Improving Your Writing Style"
5. Technical Details about the Assignment
The technical information you are given in an assignment always seems like the easy part. This section can actually give you lots of little hints about approaching the task. Find out if elements such as page length and citation format (footnoting, endnoting; MLA, APA, or CBE) are negotiable. Some professors do not have strong preferences as long as you are consistent and fully answer the assignment. Some professors are very specific and will deduct big points for deviations.
Usually, the page length tells you something important: The instructor thinks the size of the paper is appropriate to the assignment's parameters. In plain English, your instructor is telling you how many pages it should take for you to answer the question as fully as you are expected to. So if an assignment is two pages long, you cannot pad your paper with examples or reword your main idea several times. Hit your one point early, defend it with the clearest example, and finish quickly. If an assignment is ten pages long, you can be more complex in your main points and examples--and if you can only produce five pages for that assignment, you need to see someone for help--pronto.
Your instructors are not fooled when you:
- spend more time on the cover page than the essay--graphics, cool binders, and cute titles are no replacement for a well-written paper
- use huge fonts, wide margins, or extra spacing to pad the page length--these tricks are immediately obvious to the eye. Most instructors use the same kinds of computers you do. They know what's possible. Such tactics are especially damning when the instructor has a stack of 60 papers to grade and yours is the only one that low-flying airplane pilots could read.
- use a paper from another class that covered "sort of similar" material. Again, the instructor has a particular task for you to fulfill in the assignment that usually relates to course material and lectures. Your other paper may not cover this material. Ask the instructor--it can't hurt.
- get all wacky and "creative" before you answer the question. Showing that you are able to think beyond the boundaries of a simple assignment can be good, but you must do what the assignment calls for first. Again, check with your instructor. A humorous tone can be refreshing for someone grading a stack of papers, but it will not get you a good grade if you have not fulfilled the task.
Critical reading of assignments leads to skills in other types of reading and writing. If you get good at figuring out what the real goals of assignments are, you are going to be better at understanding the goals of all of your classes and fields of study.