CURRICULUM VITAE

JAMES MERRITT DOWNEY  

BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT:

1967 Bachelor of Science in Biology from Manchester College , North Manchester , Indiana .
1969 Masters of Science in Physiology from University of Illinois , Urbana , Illinois .
1970 Research Assistant, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. (Summer).
1971 Doctor of Philosophy, University of Illinois , Urbana , Illinois .
1971-1972 Research Fellow, Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston, Mass. - Harvard Medical School
1972-1975 Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, University of South Florida, College of Medicine.
1975 Visiting Assistant Professor of Physiology, Southwestern Medical School , Dallas , Texas .
1975-1980 Associate Professor, Department of Physiology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama
1980-present Full Professor, Department of Physiology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama
1981 - 1988 Visiting Scientist, The Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London.
1988 - 1993 Honorary Senior Lecturer, Dept of Biochemistry, United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St. Thomas ' Hospitals, London , England  
2013 - Professor Emeritus, Department of Physiology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama

HONORS  

Elected to Circulation Group Am. Physiological Society 1979)
Fellow American Heart Association (Fellow of the former Circulation Council, 1985)
Fellow of the International Society for Heart Research (2001).
Honorary Professor, North China Coal Medical University, Tang Shan, China (2006).
Doctor Honoris Causa (DHC), National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens Greece (2006).
Winner ISHR Peter Harris Award, 2010 World Congress, Kyoto Japan

PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES:


American Physiological Society, American Heart Association, Basic Cardiovascular Sciences Council
American Physiological Society, Circulation Section
International Society for Heart Research (President 2001-2004),

MILITARY SERVICE: U.S. Army Reservist, Honorably Discharged, 1970.

ADDRESS:

James M. Downey
MSB 3074,
University of South Alabama,
Mobile, AL 36688

jdowney@usouthal.edu
Phone 251 460 6818
fax 251 460 6464

RESEARCH SUPPORT PAST AND PRESENT

Florida Heart Association, "Determinants of Coronary Blood Flow", July 1973 - June 1974,
Burroughs Wellcome Research Laboratories, "Effects of BW 70-129 during Myocardial Ischemia", January 1973 - September 1974, $5,000.
American Heart Association, "Determinants of Coronary Blood Flow", July 1974 - June 1977, $42,570.
American Heart Association, "The Extravascular Coronary Resistance", July 1977 - June 1979, $44,440.
American Heart Association, "Ba++ Contracture in the Whole Heart", 1982 -1985,
Burroughs Wellcome Co., "The Effect of Oxypurinol on Infarct Size in the Dog", 1985, $8,320.
Tanabe Pharmaceutical Co. (Japan), Diltiazem and Infarct Size, 1985,$7,000.
Sapporo Medical College (Subcontract), "The Direct Metabolic Effect of Dobutamine on Myocardial Infarct Size in the Dog", Jan 1986, $6,754
Ayerst Pharmaceutical Co., "The Effect of Cetamolol Administration on Infarct Size following Permanent Coronary Occlusion in Closed Chest Dogs", Aug 1983, $8,000
NIH Heart Lung and Blood Institute, "Coronary Collateral Function", PI: Michael Cohen, Apr-Jun 1987, $7,500
Pharmacia AB, "Is the Effect of SOD Only to Delay Necrosis in Reperfused Rabbit Myocardium?", Apr 1987, $10,160
Burroughs Wellcome Co., "Intravenous Allopurinol Versus Oxypurinol in a Reperfusion Protocol in the Scavenging of Myocardial Muscle in Ischemia", May 1985, $12,705
Upjohn Co., "The Effect of Early and Late Administration of Ibuprofen on Myocardial Infarct Size in a Model of Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rabbit, Aug 1986, $2,400
Pharmacia AB, "Human Superoxide Dismutase, its effect in infarcting rabbit heart", January, 1988, $42,982.
Hoffman LaRoche, "Intracellular Anti-oxidants in infarcting rabbit myocardium", December 1988, $21,000
Marion Laboratories "effect of a new antioxidant on infarct size in the rabbit heart" August, 1989, $4400
NIH, "Anti infarct effects in the denervated heart", PI: Carl Jones, Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine, Subcontract to USA, 1991 -1994, $131,835.
Alabama Heart Assn., "Mechanism of A1 induced cardioprotection", $24,990, 1991-1992.
Gensia Pharmaceuticals Inc. Pretreatment with AICAR and the temporal threshold for preconditioning $2750, April 1991
Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, Geneva: Cardioprotective effects of a new A1-selective compound, WAG. $10,000. September 1992
NIH "Catechols and Adenosine in Myocardial Preconditioning" HL50688 Michael V. Cohen PI $351,510 (5% effort for JMD) Sept 93 - Aug 96
NIH "Physical Factors and Coronary Flow" HL20648 July 1994 - June 1999, $527,000 direct costs.
(35% effort)
Gensia Pharmaceuticals Inc. Protection of the ischemic heart with A3-based compounds . $200,000 April 1993- March 1995 (10% effort)
Chugai Pharmaceuticals, Tokyo Japan, "Cardioprotective effects of nicorandil" Jan-Dec 1995, $10,000
NIH "Catechols and Adenosine in Myocardial Preconditioning" HL50688 Michael V. Cohen PI $135,000/year direct costs (5% effort for JMD) Sept 97 - Aug 2001 This grant is in its 5th year
NIH "Physical Factors and Coronary Flow" HL20648 July 1999 - June 2003, $740,122 direct costs.
(35% effort)
Rhone-Poulench Rorer "AMP579 in myocardial infarction in the rabbit" 1999, $5000
Bheringer Ingleheim "p38 MAPK inhibitors in Rabbit models of myocardial infarction" 1999, $5000
Aventis “AMP579 in myocardial infarction” 2001, $75,000
NIH "Physical Factors and Coronary Flow" HL20648 July 2003 - June 2007, $175,000 /year direct costs.
(35% effort)
NIH "Physical Factors and Coronary Flow" HL20648 April 2007 - Jan 2014. $201,600/year direct costs (35% effort).  
The Medicines Company. "Cangrelor and Cardioprotection" May 2014-Dec 2014. Sub contract to U South Alabama $77,200 direct costs (20% effort). 

EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERSHIP:

Circulation Research, 1978 - 1983, 1994 - 2012
Basic Research in Cardiology 1995-present
J. Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 1986-present
Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2009-present
Cardiovascular Pharmacology 2001 - 2004
American Journal of Physiology, 1987 - 1993
Cardiovascular Research, 1991-1998
Guest Editor: Focused Issue on the Protective Effects of Adenosine. Cardiovascular Research Vol 27: No 1, 1993
Guest Editor: Focused Issue: Spotlight in preconditioning. Cardiovascular Research Vol 55, No3, 2002
Andromeda
Interactive: Multimedia interactive lectures in cardiac physiology on CD ROM. 1995-1998
Merk Cardiovascular: Nicorandil in angina pectoris. An educational CD ROM 2001

MEDICAL SCHOOL COMMITTEES

Admissions Committee (2 years).
Admissions: Ad Hoc Interviewer
Curriculum Committee (6 years)
Patent Committee (2 years)
Ethics Committee
Faculty Promotions (5 years)
Research Committee (3 years)
Director Summer Research Program (1 year)
Executive Committee, Graduate Program (2 years)
MD-PhD graduate Committee (1 year)
Institutional Review Board (2 year)
Graduate School Accreditation Self-Study Panel (1 year)
Radiation safety (4 years)
Faculty Senate (3 years)
Committee on Committees (2 years)
Research Advisory Committee (chair 2 years)
Cytometry Core Oversight Committee (chair 3 years)
COM Scientific Core Executive Committee (3 years)
Student Evaluation Committee (Chair,1 year)

PEER REVIEW ACTIVITIES:

Research Committee, Alabama Heart Assn.(1982 - 1984, 1995 - present).GLAXO Cardiovascular Discovery Grant Program (1988 - 1989)
Consultant to Canadian Heart Assn. as Reviewer (1980 - 1983).
Abstract grader, American Heart Assn. Scientific Sessions: 1980, 1981, 1984, 1985, 1989-2004
Member of NIH Site Visit Teams and Study Sections. (See NIH Consulting below)
Judge for the Upjohn Young Investigator award (ISHR) 1987, 1990, 1991
External examiner for Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, 1980.

Abstract grader, American College of Cardiology, 1993

INDUSTRIAL CONSULTANTSHIPS:

Contracted Consultant: Hoffman LaRoche; Dr. Ann Sullivan and Dr. Lawrence Klevans (1984 - 1989)
Contracted Consultant: Burroughs Wellcome: (1985)
Pharmacia-Chiron Partnership: (1988-1990)
GLAXO: Advisory Board, Cardiovascular Discovery Grant Program (1988 - 1990)
Contracted Consultant: Gensia Inc: (1993-1995)
Advisory Board Member, Rhone-Poulenc Rorer AMP579 Project: (1998-2000)
Contracted Consultant: Cognetix (2002-2003)
Contracted Consultant: Guidant Corp. (2005-present)

INVITED PRESENTATIONS: (1993-present)

May 2011 Symposium speaker ISHR Amercan Section meeting, Philadelphia, PA 
Sept 2010 Participant NIH New Horizons Cardioprotection Workshop, Bethesda MD
Aug 2010 Symposium speaker AHA’s BCVS summer meeting, Palm Springs
July 2010 Invited discussant and speaker Cardioprotection Symposium, Mauritius
May 2010 Symposium speaker ISHR world congress Kyoto, Japan
June 2009 Invited Speaker, The cGMP meeting, Regensburg, Germany
May 2009 Invited Speaker, Heart Protection Symposium, Amman Jordan
March 2009 Invited Speaker, Japanese Cardiology Society Annual Meeting, Osaka
Feb 2009 Symposium Participant, UCLA Cardiology Symposium, Los Angeles
Dec 2008 Invited Speaker, BSCR Workshop, London
Nov 2008 Invited Speaker, Beijing Joint Conference of Physiological Sciences
May 2008 Invited Speaker, ISHR European Section Annual Meeting, Athens 
April 2008 Invited Participant, Hatter Cardioprotection Workshop, Lion Sands, South Africa
Nov 2007 Visiting Scientist and Speaker, R.M. Berne CV Res. Center, University of Virginia
Nov 2006 Invited speaker 2nd Annual International Cardiology Congress, Athens, Greece
Oct 2006 Invited speaker North China Coal Medical University,Tang Shan China
June 2006 Symposium organizer & Participant ISHR American Section Meeting, Toronto
April 2006 Invited Speaker Second Conference of Jordanian Medical Schools, Irbid Jordan
Dec 2005 Symposium Participant ISHR Japanese Section Meeting, Osaka
Nov 2005 Invited speaker Sunday program AHA Scientific Sessions, Dallas TX
Sept 2005 Invited Speaker Turkish Congress Pharmacology, Izmir Turkey
May 2005 Symposium Participant ISHR American Section Meeting, New Orleans
April 2005 Program Participant Hatter Workshop, Victoria Falls Zambia
March 2005 Visiting Scientist and Speaker Guidant Corp, St Paul MN
Dec 2004 Invited speaker Hellenic College of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Athens Greece
Nov 2004 Invited speaker Sunday program AHA Scientific Sessions, New Orleans
Aug 2004 Symposium Participant ISHR World Congress, Brisbane
May 2004 Visiting Scientist and Speaker, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA
April 2004 Visiting Scientist and Speaker, CV Therapeutics, Palo Alto, CA
March 2004 Ask the Expert presenter, American College of Cardiology meeting, New Orleans, LA
Jan 2004 Symposium Speaker Athens Exchange of CV Research Ideas, Athens, Greece
Nov 2003 Symposium Speaker ISHR Japanese section, Tokyo, Japan
Nov 2003 Symposium Speaker AHA Scientific Sessions, Orlando, FL
Oct 2003 Visiting Scientist and Speaker, Medical College of Georgia, Agusta, GA
Oct 2003 Visiting Scientist and Speaker, LSU Medical School, New Orleans, LA
Oct 2003 Visiting Scientist and Speaker, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY
August 2003 Session Chair AHA Basic CV Science Council meeting, Snowbird, UT
July 2003 Invited Speaker ISHR American section meeting, Mystic, CN
June 2003 Session Chair ISHR European section meeting, Strausbourg France
April 2003 Invited Speaker in International Symposium for Cardiac Anesthesia, Morioka Japan
Nov 2002 Session Chair, American Heart association Scientific Sessions, Chicago, IL
Oct 2002 Symposium speaker in International Society for Heart Research, Japanese Section, Yamagata, Japan
Sept 2002 Invited Speaker in Evolving Concepts in Ischemic Injury, Antwerp, Belgium
August 2002 Participant in the 3rd International Hatter Workshop, Clivden, UK
July 2002 Symposium Speaker International Society for Heart Research, American Section, Madison WI
June 2002 Invited Speaker The Failing Heart, Stara Lesna, Slovak Republic
June 2002 Symposium Speaker International Society for Heart Research, European Section, Szeged, Hungary
April 2002 Invited Speaker at the 66th Japanese Circulatory Society Meeting, Sapporo, Japan
April 2002 Invited Speaker at the International Symposium on Ischemic Heart Disease, Bilbao Spain
Nov 2001 Two symposium talks at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions, Anaheim CA
August 2001 Molecular, Integrative & Clinical Approaches to Myocardial Ischemia, Symposium Presenter, Seattle WA
August 2001 ISHR Australasian section annual meeting, Symposium Presenter, Brisbane Australia
July 2001 ISHR World Congress, Symposium Presenter, Winnipeg Canada
April 2001 Alcohol & Wine in Health and disease, Invited Speaker, Palo Alto Ca
Feb 2001 New York University, Medical Grand Rounds, New York, NY
Nov 2000 National Minority Symposium, Invited Presenter, Washington DC
Nov 2000 Symposium Speaker, American Heart Association Scientific Sessions, New Orleans, LA
Sept 2000 Grand Rounds, Dept of Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago
August 2000 Invited Symposium Speaker, European Society of Cardiology, Amsterdam
June 2000 Invited Symposium speaker and session chair , ISHR American section meeting, Louisville, KY
June 2000 Invited Speaker. Shock Society Annual Meeting, Snowbird, Utah
April 2000 Japanese Circulatory Society, Symposium Speaker, Osaka, Japan
April 2000 Yamagata University, Departmental of Pharmacology Seminar Speaker, Yamagata City, Japan
April 2000 The Hatter Institute, University College London, Seminar Speaker, London, England
April, 2000 Participant: Hatter Workshop on Myocardial Ischemia, Le Toussrok, Mauritius
Nov 1999 Sunday Symposium Speaker, Circulation Council, American Heart Association Scientific Sessions, Atlanta Georgia
Oct 1999 Invited Speaker: Turkish Pharmacology Soc., Malatya Turkey
Oct 1999 Visiting Scientist: Medical College of Wisconsin, Pharmacology Dept., Milwaukee WI
June 1999 Invited Lecturer British Cardiac Society Workshop on ischemic preconditioning, London UK
April 1999 Grand Rounds. University of Louisville, Louisville KY
June 1998 Symposium speaker, ISHR American Section Meeting, San Diego CA
Dec 1998 Invited Speaker and Session Chair, Japanese Section ISHR meeting, Tokyo, Japan
Nov 1998 Seminar Speaker, Texas Tech University, Physiology Dept., Lubbock, TX
Nov 1998 Plenary Speaker, American Heart Assn, Dallas, TX
Oct 1998 Invited Speaker, Pathophysiology of Stunning, Hibernation & Preconditioning, Taormina, Sicily
August 1998 Invited Speaker CSDS meeting, Gent, Belgium
August 1998 Invited Speaker Tromso Seminar in Medicine, Tromso Norway
June 1998 Seminar Speaker, Physiology Department, Kuwait Medical School, Kuwait City
May 1998 Symposium Speaker, ISHR World Congress, Rhodes, Greece
April 1998 Invited Speaker Preconditioning Workshop, Cape town, South Africa
Feb 1998 Symposium Speaker, AHA Circulation Council Meeting, Lake Tahoe, NV
October 1997 Cardiology Rounds, Cincinnati, OH
November 1997 PKC debate, American Heart Assn Scientific Sessions, Orlando, FL
August 1997 Invited Speaker, European Cardiological Society, Stockholm, Sweden
June 1997 Invited Speaker, Myocardial adaptation, High Tatras, Slovak Republic
April 1997 Session chair, Heat Shock Proteins and Ischemia symposium, Experimental Biology, New Orleans LA
April 1997 Invited speaker, New Approaches to Ischemia-Reperfusion, Buenos Aires, Argentina
March 1997 Keynote speaker, Hypertension 2000, New York NY
December 1996 Invited speaker, Technion, Haifa, Israel
November 1996 Session chair, American Heart Association, New Orleans LA
August 1996 Invited speaker, Alfred Benzon Symposium. Copenhagen, Denmark
August 1996 Session chair, European Society of Cardiology, Birmingham, England
May 1996 Invited speaker, East Tennessee State College of Medicine, Johnson City, TN
April 1996 Invited speaker, North East Ohio College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH
March 1996 Session chair, American College of Cardiology, Orlando FL
Dec 1995 Invited speaker, Adaptive Medicine Meeting, Madras, India
Dec 1995 Invited speaker, 4th Annual Mol Path Symposium, Univ College, London
Nov 1995 Symposium speaker, ISHR Japan section, Osaka, Japan
Nov 1995 Invited speaker, Adenosine Cardioprotection, Long Beach CA
Nov 1995 Plenary speaker, Scientific Session AHA, Anaheim CA
Sept 1995 Invited speaker, Glaxo Pharmaceuticals, Ascot U.K.
July 1995 Symposium speaker, Int. Soc. for Heart Research, Prague
May 1995 Symposium speaker, Int. Soc. for Heart Research, Gulf Shores, AL
April 1995 Symposium speaker, German Cardiac Society, Mannheim, Germany
Jan 1995 Invited speaker, New ischemic syndromes, Cape Town South Africa
Jan 1995 Invited speaker, University of Connecticut, Dept of Surgery
Nov 1994 State of the art lecture, AHA Scientific Sessions, Dallas TX
Sept 1994 Invited lecture, Louisiana State University, Shreveport, LA
Oct 1994 Symposium speaker, Myocardial Ischemia, Nice, France
Oct 1994 Invited Speaker, The Rayne Institute, St Thomas' Hosp, London England
Oct 1994 Invited Speaker, The Hatter Institute, University College, London England
Oct 1994 Invited Speaker, The Brompton Hospital, London England
June 1994 Grand rounds: University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway
June 1994 Invited speaker: Cerebral ischemia and the Heart, Timmendorf, Germany
June 1994 Symposium speaker: ISHR Copenhagen
May 1994 Invited speaker: The Int. Adenosine Meeting, Philadelphia PA
May 1994 Symposium speaker: British Cardiac Society, Torquay, England
May 1994 Invited speaker: Glaxo Pharmaceuticals, Ware, England
April 1994 Symposium speaker: ASPET symposium at Experimental Biology, Anaheim
Jan 1994 William Harvey Lecture Series: London, England
Dec 1993 Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Groton CT
Dec 1993 Grand rounds: Dept. Cardiology, Unv. California San Francisco CA
Nov 1993 Post-graduate seminar speaker, AHA Scientific Sessions, Atlanta GA
Nov 1993 State of the art lecture, AHA Scientific Sessions, Atlanta GA
Oct 1993 Syntex, Palo Alto, CA
August 1993 Symposium speaker, Int Symp Cardiovasc Pharmacology, Minneapolis
July 1993 Symposium speaker, IUPS Glasgow, Scotland
July 1993 Faculty presenter, New York Academy of Sciences, New York NY
June 1993 Symposium speaker, ISHR, Columbia MO
May 1993 Parke Davis, Ann Arbor, MI
April 1993 Symposium speaker, FASEB New Orleans LA
March 1993 Faculty presenter, Ischemic Heart Disease (E. Merck spons.), Newcastle, UK
March 1993 Medical grand rounds, University College, London Uk
Feb 1993 Physiology Dept., Uniformed Services U., Bethesda, MD
Jan 1993 Invited Speaker, First Annual Adenosine Symposium, Tokyo, Japan
Jan 1993 Pharmacology Dept., Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan

NIH CONSULTING: (1985-present)

May 2012 Reviewer: Board of Scietific Councelors Site Visit
June 2004 Chair: Special Study Section
1998-2000 CVB Study Section: Regular Member
1989-1993 CVB Study Section: Regular Member
February 1989 University of Iowa (SCORE site visit team)
January 1989 Baylor University, Houston (SCORE site visit team)
December 1988 Johns Hopkins (SCORE site visit team)
October 1988 Houston, TX (site visit team, HLBI)
October 1988 Bethesda, Study Section: Clinical Investigator Award, NHLBI. Manpower Review Committee.
May 1988 Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (Site visit team, General Medicine)
Feb 1988 Bethesda, Study Section CV B, NHLBI Review Branch.
Jan 1988 Bethesda, Study Section: Clinical Investigator Award, NHLBI; Manpower Review Committee
Dec 1987 in NHLBI Research Review Committee A, ad hoc consultant
Sept 1987 Cardiovascular Res. Inst., San Francisco, CA (Site visit team, NHLBI)
May 1987 Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (Site visit team, General Medicine)
Jan 1987 Univ. Missouri, Columbia, MO (Site visit team, NHLBI)
Feb 1986 Bethesda, Study Section CV A, NHLBI Review Branch
Jan 1986 Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston (Site visit team, NHLBI)
Jan 1986 Univ. Missouri, Columbia, MO (Site visit team, NHLBI)
Oct 1985 Bethesda, Study Section CV A, NHLBI Review Branch

COMMUNITY SERVICE:

Program Advisory Committee, American Physiological Society (1985-1988)
Program Executive Committee, American Physiological Society (1989-1991)
Steering Committee, Cardiovascular Section, American Physiological Society (1985-1989)
Nominating committee, Cardiovascular section, Am. Physiological Society (1989-1991)
Governance Council Member, International Society for Heart Research: American section (1988-1997)
Governance Council Member, International Society for Heart Research: International (1995-present)
Program committee, Circulation Council, American Heart Association (1991-1999)
Executive Committee Member at Large, Circulation Council, American Heart Association (1993-1999)
American Heart Association Alabama Affiliate Grant review committee (1995-1997)
Chairman, Melvin Marcus Young Investigator Award review committee, Circulation Council (1996-1998)
Nominating Committee, Circulation Council, American Heart Association, (1996-1999)
Treasurer, International Society for Heart Research: American section (1997-1998)
External Examiner to the physiology teaching program, Kuwait University College of Medicine, Kuwait (1998)
President, International Society for Heart Research: International (2001-2004)
American Heart Association Mobile county board of directors (2001-present)

MEETINGS ORGANIZED:

May 2009 Co-organizer Heart Protection Symposium, Amman, Jordan
Nov 2008 Co-organizer Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, New Orleans
Nov 2007 Co-organizer Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, Orlando
Nov 2006 Co-organizer Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, Chicago
Nov 2005 Co-organizer Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, Dallas
Nov 2004 Co-organizer Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, New Orleans
Nov 2003 Co-organizer Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, Orlando
Nov 2002 Co-organizer Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, Chicago
Nov 2000 Co-organizer Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, New Orleans
Nov 1999 Co-organizer Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, Atlanta
Nov 1998 Co-organizer Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, Dallas
Nov 1997 Co-organizer,, Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, Orlando
April 1996 Co-organizer, New Approaches to Ischemia-Reperfusion, Buenos Aires
Nov 1996 Co-organizer, Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, New Orleans
Nov 1995 Co-organizer, Adenosine, Cardioprotection and its Clinical Application, Long Beach
June 1995 Co-organizer, ISHR annual meeting, American Section, Mobile 
Nov 1994 Organizer, Sunday Circulation Council Session at the AHA meeting, Dallas
Nov 1994 Co-organizer, Adenosine Satellite, (AHA meeting) Dallas
May 1992 Co-organizer, Sapporo ISHR satellite, Sapporo Japan
May 1991 ISHR annual meeting organizing committee, Cincinnati
May 1988 FASEB theme co-organizer, Ischemic Heart Disease, Las Vegas
March 1988 Organizer, Free Radicals and Reperfusion Injury, Point Clear, AL
Oct 1987 APS Fall Meeting theme organizer, Membrane Biophysics and Molecular Kinetics in the Cardiovascular System, San Diego
March 1986 Co-organizer, Free Radicals and Reperfusion Injury, Point Clear, Al

STUDENTS TRAINED


PhD Students: as Mentor

David E. Chambers (1983) "Pharmacologic modification of infarct size"
Jon D. Thornton (1993) "Adenosine receptors and Ischemic Preconditioning"
Yongge Liu (1994) "The signal transduction pathway for the anti-infarct effect of ischemic preconditioning in the rabbit and rat heart"
Christopher Baines (1999) “The roles of kinases and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the mechanism of ischemic preconditioning.
Qining Qin (2005) “Myocardial signal transduction pathways linking muscarinic receptors to the mitochondrial KATPchannel-dependent ROS production in the heart”.
Amanda Davis (2006 -2009) no degree

PhD Students: as Committee member
Dale Parks (1982)
Ranjan Roy (1985)
Simon Allo (1989)
W. John Russell (1989)
Bassam Omar (1990)
 

Post-Doctoral Trainees:
Douglas Munch, Ph.D., 1977-1979
Shigeo Yoshida, M.D., Ph.D., 1982-1984
Satoshi Akazuki, M.D., 1982-1984
Tetsuji Miura, M.D., Ph.D., 1984-1986
Takayuki Matsuki, M.D., 1986-1988
Chiaki Shirato, M.D. 1986-1988
Donna Van Winkle, Ph.D., 1988-1990
Hitoshi Ooiwa, M.D., 1989-1990
Guang Shun Liu, MD, 1989-1999
Akihito Tsuchida, MD, 1991-1993
Mahiko Goto, MD, 1993-1995
Christof Weinbrenner, MD, 1995-1997
Takayuki Miki, MD, 1995-1997
Susan Pain, PhD, 1997-1999
Atsushi Nakano, MD, 1998-2000
Maike Krenz, MD, 1999-2001
Zhelong Xu, PhD, 1999-2001
Olaf Oldenburg, MD, 2000-2003
Thomas Krieg, MD, 2001-2003
Natalia Solenkova, PhD, 2003-2005
Sebastian Philipp, MD, 2003-2005
Lin Cui, MD, 2003-2012
Atsushi Kuno, MD, 2005-2007
YanPing Liu, PhD 2006-2010
Turhan Dost 2007- 2009
Xiulan Yang 2008-2011
Fang Di Hu 2009-2010

JOURNAL ARTICLES

1. Hermsmeyer , Kent , and James M. Downey. Audile monitor for microelectrode experiments. J. Appl. Physiol. 28:858-859, 1970.

2. Downey , James M. The Determinants of the Intramyocardial Distribution of the Coronary Blood Flow. Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois , Urbana , Illinois ,1971.

3. Kirk, Edward S., James M. Downey, and H. Fred Downey. The determinants of the non-uniform distribution of coronary blood flow in systole. International Symposium on Myocardial Blood Flow in Man. Pisa , Italy , 1971.

4. Cohn, Peter, Edward Kirk, James Downey, Edmund Sonnenblick, and Richard Gorlin. Autoradiographic evaluation of myocardial collateral circulation in the canine heart. Cardiovascular Research 7:181-185, 1973.

5. Forman, Robert, Edward S. Kirk, James M. Downey, and Edmund H. Sonnenblick. Nitroglycerine and heterogeneity of myocardial blood flow: Reduced subendocardial blood flow and contractile force. J. Clin. Invest. 52:905-911, 1973.

6. Cohen, Michael V., James M. Downey, Edmund H. Sonnenblick, and Edward S. Kirk. The effects of Nitroglycerine on Coronary Collaterals and Myocardial

Contractility. J. Clin. Invest. 52:2836-2847, 1973.

7. Downey , J.M., H.F. Downey, and E.S. Kirk. Effects of myocardial strains on coronary blood flow. Circulation Research 34:286-292, 1974.

8. Downey , J.M., and E.S. Kirk. The distribution of coronary blood flow across the canine heart wall during systole. Circulation Research 34:251-257, 1974.

9. Snyder, R., J.M. Downey, and E.S. Kirk. The active and passive components of extravascular coronary resistance. Cardiovascular Research 9:161-166, 1975.

10. Downey , J.M., and E.S. Kirk. Inhibition of coronary blood flow by a vascular waterfall mechanism. Circ. Res. 36:753-760, 1975.

11. Downey , J.M., and E.S. Kirk. The transmural distribution of coronary blood flow during maximal vasodilation. Proc. Soc. 150:189-193, 1975.

12. Downey , J.M., D.F. Cowan, Edmund H. Sonnenblick, C.W. Urschel and E.S. Kirk. The adequacy of coronary blood flow during acute hypotension.

Circulatory Shock 3:83-91, 1976.

13. Downey , J.M. Subendocardial contractile force as a function of coronary blood flow in the autoregulating dog heart. Am. J. Physiol. 230:1-6,1976.

14. Downey , J.M. Compression of the coronary arteries by the fibrillating canine heart. Circ. Res. 39:53-57, 1976.

15. Downey , J.M. and R. Chagrasulis. The effect of cardiac contraction on collateral resistance in the canine heart. Circ. Res. 39:797, 1976.

16. Longenecker, H.E. and J.M. Downey. Multitrace display for a single beam oscilloscope. J. Electrophysiological Techniques 5(2):57-60, 1976.

17. Chagrasulis, R.W. and J.M. Downey. Selective coronary embolization inclosed chest dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 232:335-337, 1977.

18. Singh, B.N., D.E. Jewitt, J.M. Downey, E.S. Kirk, and E.H. Sonnenblick. Effects of amiodarone and L8040, novel antianginal and antiarrhythmic drugs, on cardiac and coronary hemodynamics and on cardiac intracellular potentials. Clin.Exp. Pharm. and Physiol. 3:427-443, 1976.

19. Russell, R.E., R.W. Chagrasulis and J.M. Downey. The inhibitory effect of cardiac contraction on coronary collateral blood flow. Am. J. Physiol.233:H541, 1977.

20. Downey , J.M. The effect of propranolol on direct coronary vasomotion. European J. Pharm. 46:119-124, 1977.

21. Downey , J.M., R.W. Chagrasulis, D. Fore, and L. Parmley. Accumulation of technetium - 99m Stannous Pyrophosphate in contused myocardium. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 18:1171, 1977.

22. Trimble, J. and J.M. Downey. Contribution of myocardial contractility to myocardial perfusion. Am. J. Physiol. 236:H121-H126, 1979.

23. Downey , J.M., R.W. Chagrasulis, and V. Hemphill. Quantitative study of intramyocardial compression in the fibrillating heart. Am. J. Physiol.

237:H191-H196, 1979.

24. Wilkerson, R.D., and J.M. Downey. Ventricular arrhythmias resulting from coronary occlusion in closed chest dog. J. Pharmacol. Techniques 1:39-44,1978.

25. Downey , J.M. Sample the 6100 Killobaud, December:54-61, 1979.

26. Goodlett, M., K. Dowling and J.M. Downey. The failure of hydrogen peroxide to improve function in ischemically-depressed myocardium. European J.Pharm. 60:257-260, 1979.

27. Goodlett, M., K. Dowling, L.J. Eddy, and J.M. Downey. The direct metabolic effects of isoproterenol and propranolol in ischemic myocardium of the dog. Am. J. Physiol. 239:H469-H476, 1980.

28. Munch, D.F., and J.M. Downey. Prediction of regional myocardial blood flow in dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 239:H308-H315, 1980.

29. Munch, D.F., H.T. Comer, and J.M. Downey. Barium contracture: A systolic model. Am. J. Physiol. 239:H438-H442, 1980.

30. Downey , J.M. Make PET hard copy easy. Killobaud, September:100-103, 1979.

31. Eddy, L.J., D. Chambers, S. Honig, and J.M. Downey. Lack of a direct metabolic effect of Fructose-1,6-Diphosphate in ischemic myocardium. Am. J.Physiol. 241:576-582, 1981.

32. Lee, J., and J.M. Downey. A microcomputer based drop counter. Pharm. Techniques 6:255-260, 1981.

33. Wyatt, D., J. Lee, and J.M. Downey. Determination of coronary collateral flow by a load line analysis. Circ. Res. 50:663-670, 1982.

34. Downey , J.M., and R.D. Wilkerson. The inability of isoproterenol or propranolol to alter the lateral dimensions of experimentally induced myocardial infarcts. Basic Res. Cardiol. 77:486-498, 1982.

35. Chambers, D.E., D.M. Yellon, D.J. Hearse, and J.M. Downey. Flurbiprofen limits infarct size at 6 but not at 24 hours following coronary occlusion in the dog. Am. J. Cardiol. 51:884-891, 1983.

36. Downey , J.M. J. Lee, and D.E. Chambers. Location and magnitude of the coronary artery capacitance. In: Mechanics of the Coronary Circulation, R.E.Mates, R.N. Nerem, and P.D. Stein, Editors, A.M.S.E., New York, pp. 45-48, 1983.

37. Yellon, D.M., D.J. Hearse, M.P. Maxwell, D.E. Chambers, and J.M. Downey. Sustained limitation of myocardial necrosis 24 hours after coronary artery occlusion: Verapamil infusion in dogs with small infarcts. Am. J. Cardiol. 51:1409-1413, 1983.

38. Lee, J., J.M. Downey, D.E. Chambers, and S. Akizuki. The role of vascular capacitance in the coronary arteries. Circ. Res 55:751-762, 1984.

39. Yoshida, S., J.M. Downey, D.E. Friedman, F.R., Chambers, D.J. Hearse, and D.M. Yellon. Nifedipine limits infarct size in closed chest coronary embolized dogs. Basic Res.Cardiology 80:76-87, 1985.

40. Downey , J.M., D.J. Hearse, S. Yoshida, M.P. Maxwell, and D.M. Yellon. Verapamil and nifedipine limit infarct size in the dog. Advances in myocardiology N.S. Dhalla and D.J. Hearse, Ed., Plenum Press, London 529-543, 1985.

41. Yellon, D.M., M.P. Maxwell, D.J. Hearse, S. Yoshida, L.J. Eddy, and J.M. Downey. Infarct size limitation: Real or artifactual. Studies with Flurbiprofen using a reperfusion model. Advances in Myocardiology N.S. Dhalla and D.J. Hearse, Ed., Plenum Press, London , 1985.

42. Gardner , T.J., J.R. Stewart, A.S. Casale, J.M. Downey, and D.E. Chambers. Reduction of myocardial ischemic injury by free radical scavengers. Surgery 94:423-427, 1983.

43. Chang, C., J. Vargese, J. Downey, and S. Bloom. Magnesium deficiency and vulnerability to myocardial infarction. J. Am. Col. Cardiology 5:280-289, 1985.

44. Downey , J.M., D.J. Hearse, D.M. Yellon, and A.S. Manning. Xanthine oxidase as a source of free radicals in myocardial ischemia. In: Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Injury H.L. Stone and W.B. Weglicki, Editors, Nijhoff, Boston , 1985.

45. Chambers, D.E., D.A. Parks, G. Patterson, R. Roy, J. McCord, S. Yoshida, L.F. Parmley, and J.M. Downey. Xanthine oxidase as a source of free radical damage in myocardial ischemia. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 17:145-152,1985.

46. Downey , J.M. Letter to the Editor. Circ. Res. 52:614-615, 1983.

47. Bulkley, G.B., W.A. Womack, J.M. Downey, P.R. Kvietys, and D.N. Granger. Efficiency of collateral blood vessels in the small bowel. Am. J. Physiol. 244:G228-G235, 1985.

48. Kudoh, Y., M.P. Maxwell, D.J. Hearse, J.M. Downey, and D.M. Yellon. Inability of metaprolol to achieve a sustained limitation of infarct size 24 hrs. after coronary embolization in the closed chest dog. J. Cardiovasc. Pharm.6:1201-1209, 1984.

49. Downey , J.M. and D.M. Yellon. Drugs to limit infarcts: The status in the lab. Cardio 2(6): 34-37, 1985.

50. Yellon, D.M., D.J. Hearse and J.M. Downey. Myocardial salvage by pharmacological interventions. 10 Phar 9th International Congress of Pharmacology Proceedings, MacMillan Press, London , 3:251-256, 1984.

51. Yoshida, S., S. Akizuki and J.M. Downey. Discrepancy between microsphere and diffusible tracer estimates of perfusion to ischemic myocardium during retrograde flow diversion. Am. J. Physiol. 249:H244-H264,1985.

52. Akizuki, S., S. Yoshida, D.E. Chambers, L.J. Eddy, L.F. Parmley, D.M. Yellon, and J.M. Downey. Infarct size limitation by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol, in closed chest dogs. Cardiovasc.Res. 19:686-692, 1985.

53. Yoshida, S., D.M. Downey, D.M. Yellon, T. Miura and O. Iimura. Diltiazem reduced infarct size but not ventricular arrhythmias in 48 hour coronary embolized dogs. Can. J. Cardiol.1:346-353, 1985.

54. Hearse, D.J., A.S. Manning, J.M. Downey, and D.M. Yellon. Xanthine oxidase as a critical mediator of myocardial injury during ischemia and reperfusion. Acta Physiol Scand. 548:65-78, 1986.

55. Downey , J.M. A functional estimate of overlap between adjacent coronary circulations in the dog. Basic Res. Cardiol. 81:336-341, 1986.

56. Hearse, D.J., D.M. Yellon, and J.M. Downey. Can Beta Blockers limit infarct size? European Heart Journal 7:925-930, 1986.

57. Dennis, A.R., J.G. Kingma, D.J. Hearse, J.M. Downey, and D.M. Yellon. Anapamil limits myocardial necrosis in the closed chest dog during 24 hours of coronary artery occlusion. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 18 (Suppl I):359, 1986.

58. Kudoh, Y., D.J. Hearse, M.P. Maxwell, S. Yoshida , J.M. Downey, and

D.M. Yellon. Calcium antagonist and evolving myocardial infarction: Studies of the effects of nifedipine on tissue ATP, collateral flow, and infarct size in the closed chest dog. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 18 (Suppl 4):77-92, 1986.

59. Bulkley, G.B., W.A. Womack, J.M. Downey, P.R. Kvietys, and D.N. Granger. Collateral blood flow in segmental intestinal ischemia: Effects of vasoactive agents. Surgery 100:157-166, 1986.

60. Downey , J.M., S. Yoshida, M.D. Harpen. A functional estimate of overlap between adjacent coronary circulations in the dog. Basic Res. Cardiol. 81:336-341, 1986.

61. Miura, T., D.M. Yellon, D.J. Hearse, and J.M. Downey. The determinants of infarct size during permanent occlusion of a coronary artery in the closed chest dog. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 9:647-656, 1987.

62. Eddy, L.J., J.R. Stewart, H.P. Jones, T.D. Engerson, J.M. McCord, and J.M. Downey. The free radical producing enzyme, xanthine oxidase is undetectable in human hearts. Am. J. Physiol. 253:H709-H711, 1987.

63. Kingma, J.G., A.R. Dennis, D.J. Hearse, J.M. Downey, and D.M. Yellon. Limitation of infarct size for 24 hours by combined treatment with allopurinol plus verapamil during acute myocardial infarction in the dog. Circulation 75:V25-V33, 1987.

64. Downey , J.M., T. Miura, L.J. Eddy, D.E. Chambers, D.J. Hearse, and D.M. Yellon. Xanthine oxidase: A source of free radicals in ischemic rat heart but not in the rabbit heart. J. Mol. Cell.Cardiol. 19:1053-1060, 1987.

65. Miura, T., J.M. Downey, D. Hotta, M. Inoue, S. Ogawa , S. Yoshida, and O. Iimura. Apparent Limitation of Myocardial Infarct Size by Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase was Lost During 3 Day Reperfusion in a Rabbit Ischemia/Reperfusion Model. In: Microcirculation, M. Tsuchiya et al ., Eds.,Elsevier Science Publishers, Vol. 1, 1987, pp. 687-689.

66. Miura, T., D.M. Yellon, J. Kingma, and J.M. Downey. Protection afforded by allopurinol in the first 24 hours of coronary occlusion is diminished after 48 hours. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 4:25-30, 1988.

67. Miura, T., S. Yoshida , O. Iimura, and J.M. Downey. Dobutamine modifies infarct size through supply/demand balance. Am. J. Physiol. 23:H855,1988.

68. Miura, T. and J.M. Downey. Collateral perfusion of ischemic myocardium is inversely related to the size of the ischemic zone. Basic Res.Cardiol. 83:128-136, 1988.

69. Miura, T. and J.M. Downey. The percentage of the ischemic zone infarcting following permanent coronary occlusion is independent of ischemic zone size. Japan Heart Journal 29:359-366, 1988.

70. Downey , J.M., D.J. Hearse, and D.M. Yellon. The role of xanthine oxidase during myocardial ischemic in several species including Man. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 20(Supp II):55-63, 1988.

71. Cohen, M.V., T. Matsuki, and J.M. Downey. Pressure-flow characteristics and nutritional capacity of coronary veins and their collateral channels in dogs. Am.J. Physiol. 255:H834-H846, 1988.

72. Miura, T., J.M. Downey, D. Hotta, and O. Iimura. Effect of superoxide dismutase plus catalase on myocardial infarct size in rabbits. Can. J. Cardiol. 4, 407-411, 1988.

73. Kingma, J.G., T. Miura, J.M. Downey, D.J. Hearse and D.M. Yellon. Myocardial salvage with allopurinol during 24 hours of permanent coronary occlusion: importance of pretreatment. Can. J. Cardiol. 4:360-365, 1988.

74. Matsuki, T., M.V. Cohen, G. Holt, J. Ayling, D.J. Hearse and J.M. Downey. Chronic whole-body sympathectomy fails to protect the ischemic rabbit heart. Am. J. Physiol. 256:H1322-H1329, 1989.

75. Miura, T., J.M. Downey, H. Ooiwa, S. Ogawa, T. Adachi, T. Noto, Y Shizuka, O. Iimura. Progression of myocardial infarction in a collateral flow deficient species. Jap. Heart J. 30:695-708, 1989.

76. Miura, T, J.M. Downey. Critical collateral blood flow level for salvage of ischemic myocardium. Can. J. Cardiol. 4:201-205, 1989.

77. Maxwell, M.P., D.J. Hearse, D.M. Yellon and J.M. Downey. Inability of chronic chemical sympathectomy to induce coronary collateral growth or development: studies in the rat heart in vivo. Cardiovasc. Res. 23:821-824, 1989

78. Shirato, C., T. Miura, H. Ooiwa, T. Toyofuku, W.H. Wilborn and J.M. Downey. Tetrazolium artifactually indicates superoxide dismutase-induced salvage in reperfused rabbit heart. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 21:1187-1193, 1989

79. Downey , J.M. Free radicals and their involvement during long term myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 52:487-504, 1990

80. Van Winkle, D.M., T. Matsuki, N.M. Gad, M.C. Jordan, J.M. Downey. Left ventricular unloading during reperfusion does not limit infarct size. Circulation 81:1374-1379, 1990

81. Matsuki, T., C. Shirato, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Oxypurinol limits infarct size in closed chest dogs without pretreatment. Can. J. Cardiol. 6:123-129, 1990

82. Ooiwa, H., T. Miura, J.M. Downey, T. Matsuki, Y. Shizukuda, T. Adachi, A. Tsuchida, T. Iwamoto, T. Owawa and O. Iimura. The effect of inotropic dose of dobutamine during reperfusion on myocardial infarct size. Jap. Circ. J. 53:1511-1520, 1989

83. Matsuki, T. M.V. Cohen and J.M. Downey. Free radical scavengers preserve wall motion in the xanthine oxidase-deficient rabbit heart. Coronary Artery Disease 1:383-389, 1990

84. Ooiwa, H., A. Stanley, A.C. Felaneous-Bylund, W. Wilborn and J.M. Downey. Superoxide dismutase conjugated to polyethylene glycol fails to limit infarct size after 30 minutes ischemia followed by 72 hours of reperfusion in the rabbit. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 23:119-127, 1991

85. Downey , J.M., B. Omar, H. Ooiwa and J.M. McCord. Superoxide dismutase therapy for myocardial ischemia. Free Rad. Res. Comms 12: 703-720, 1990

86. Yellon, D.M., D.J. Hearse, D.E. Chamber, J.M. Downey. Diltiazem, Nifedipine, Verapamil reduced infarct size in coronary embolized dog hearts. Japanese Pharmacology & Therapeutics 13(6): 83-90, 1985.

87. Thornton, J., S. Striplin, G.S. Liu, A. Swafford, A.W.H. Stanley, D.M. VanWinkle and J.M. Downey. Inhibition of protein synthesis does not block myocardial protection during preconditioning. Am. J. Physiol. 259:H1822-H1825, 1990

88. Yellon, D.M. and J.M. Downey. Current research views on myocardial reperfusion and reperfusion injury. Cardioscience 1:89-98, 1990

89. Van Winkle, D.M., A.N. Swafford, and J.M. Downey. Subendocardial coronary compression in the beating dog heart is independent of pressure in the ventricular lumen. Am. J. Physiol. 261: H500-H505, 1991

90. Cohen, M.V. and J.M. Downey. Myocardial stunning in dogs: preconditioning effect and influence of collateral flow. Am. Heart J. 120:282-291, 1990

91. Omar, B.A., N.M. Gad, M.C. Jordan, S.P. Striplin, W.J. Russell, J.M. Downey, J.M. McCord. Cardioprotection by superoxide dismutase is lost at high doses in the reoxygenated heart. Free Rad Com 9:465-471, 1990

92. Ooiwa, H., D.R. Janero, A.W.H. Stanley and J.M. Downey. Examination of two small-molecule antiperoxidant agents in a rabbit model of post-ischemic myocardial infarction. J. Cardiovasc. Pharm. 17:761-767, 1991

93. Van Winkle, D.M., J. Thornton, D.M. Downey, J.M. Downey. The natural history of preconditioning. Cardioprotection depends on duration of transient ischemia and time to subsequent ischemia. Coronary Artery Disease 2:613-619, 1991

94. Cohen, M.V., G.S. Liu, J.M. Downey. Preconditioning causes improved wall motion as well as smaller infarcts after transient coronary occlusion in rabbits. Circulation 84:341-349, 1990

95. Liu, G. S., J. Thornton, D.M. Van Winkle, A.W.H. Stanley, R.A. Olsson, J.M. Downey Protection against infarction afforded by preconditioning is mediated by A1 adenosine receptors in rabbit heart. Circulation 84:350-356, 1991 Times Cited: 999

96. Turrens, J.F., J. Thornton, M. L. Barnard, S. Snyder, G. Liu, and J.M. Downey. Protection from reperfusion injury by preconditioning hearts does not involve increased antioxidant defenses. Am J. Physiol 262:H585-H589, 1992

97. Thornton , J,D., Liu, G.S., Olsson, R.A, Downey , J.M. Intravenous pretreatment with A1-selective adenosine analogs protects the heart against infarction. Circulation 85:659-665, 1992 Times Cited: 384

98. Parmley, L.F., A.G. Mufti, J.M. Downey. Allopurinol therapy of ischemic heart disease with infarct extension. Can J. Cardiol. 8:280-286, 1992

99. Liu, G.S., A.W.H. Stanley, J.M. Downey. Cyclooxygenase products are not involved the protection against myocardial infarction afforded by preconditioning in rabbit. Am. J. Cardiovasc. Path. 4:56-63, 1992

100. Liu, G.S., A.W.H. Stanley, J.M. Downey. Ischemic preconditioning is not dependent on neutrophils or glycolytic substrate at reperfusion in rabbit heart. Cardiovasc. Res. 26:1195-1198, 1992

101. Liu, Y. and J.M. Downey. Ischemic preconditioning protects against infarction in the rat heart. Am J. Physiol. 263:H1107-1112, 1992 Times Cited: 310

102. Downey , J.M. Ischemic preconditioning: Nature’s own cardioprotective intervention. Trends Cardiovasc. Res. 2:170-175, 1992 Times Cited: 107

103. Yellon, D.M., E. Iliodromitis, D.S. Latchman, D.M. Van Winkle, J.M. Downey, F.M. Williams, T.J. Williams: Whole body heat stress fails to limit infarct size in the reperfused rabbit heart. Cardiovasc Res 26:342-346, 1992

104. Downey , J.M. Review of "Coronary Blood Flow," by J.A.E. Spaan. Cardiovascular Research 26: 912, 1992.

105. Thornton, J.D., C.S. Thornton, D.L. Sterling, J.M. Downey. Blockade of ATP sensitive potassium channels increases infarct size but does not prevent preconditioning. Circ Res 72:44-49, 1993 Times Cited: 153

106. Bunch, F.T, J.D. Thornton, M.V. Cohen and J.M. Downey. Adenosine is an endogenous protectant against stunning during repetitive ischemic episodes in the heart. Am Heart J 124:1440-1446, 1992

107. Tsuchida, A. G.S. Liu, W.H. Wilborn, J.M. Downey. Pretreatment with the adenosine A1 selective agonist 2 chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) causes a sustained limitation of infarct size in rabbits. Cardiovasc Res 27:652-656, 1993

108. Downey , J.M., G.S. Liu, J.D. Thornton . Adenosine and the anti infarct effects of preconditioning. Cardiovasc Res 27:2-8, 1993 Times Cited: 145

109. Thornton,J.D., J.F. Daly, M.V. Cohen, X.M. Yang, J.M. Downey. Catecholamines can induce adenosine receptor-mediated protection of the myocardium but do not participate in ischemic preconditioning in the rabbit. Circ Res 73:649-655, 1993

110. Liu, Y., J.D. Thornton, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey, S.W. Schaffer. Streptozotocin-induced non-insulin dependent diabetes protects heart from infarction. Circulation 88:1273-1278, 1993

111. Yellon, D.M., J.M. Walker, R.A. Kloner, J.M. Downey, W.B. Pugsley. Unstable Angina. Lancet 341:1323-1327,1993

112. Ytrehus, K., J.M. Downey. Experimental Models assessing the physiology of myocardial ischemia. Current Opinion Cardiol 8:581-588, 1993

113. Thornton , J.D., Thornton , C.S., Downey , J.M. Effect of adenosine receptor blockade: preventing protective preconditioning depends on time of initiation. Am J Physiol 265:H504-508, 1993

114. Thornton, J.D., G.S. Liu, J.M. Downey. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin blocks the protective effect of preconditioning: evidence for a G-protein mechanism. J Mol Cell Cardiol 25:311-320, 1993 Times Cited: 159

115. Tsuchida, A., G.S. Liu, K. Mullane, J.M. Downey. Acadesine lowers temporal threshold for the myocardial infarct size limiting effect of preconditioning. Cardiovasc Res 27:116-120 1993

116. Liu, Y., J.M. Downey. Preconditioning against infarction in the rat heart does not involve a pertussis toxin sensitive G protein. Cardiovasc Res 27:608-611, 1993

117. Yang, X.M., S. Arnoult , A. Tsuchida, D. Cope, J.D. Thornton, J. Daly, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Ischemic Preconditioning's protection can be reinstated in the rabbit heart after the initial protection has waned. Cardiovasc Res 27:556-558, 1993

118. Lawson, C.S., J.M. Downey. Preconditioning: State of the art protection. Cardiovasc Res 27:542-550, 1993 Times Cited: 261

119. Ganote, C.E., S. Armstrong, J.M. Downey. Adenosine and A1-selective agonists offer minimal protection against ischemic injury to isolated rat cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res 27:1670-1676, 1993

120. Tsuchida, A., R. Thompson, R.A. Olsson, J.M. Downey The anti-infarct effect of an adenosine A1-selective agonist is diminished after prolonged infusion as is the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning in rabbit heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 26:303-311, 1994

121. Sterling, D., J. Thornton, A. Swafford, S. Gottleib, S.P. Bishop, A.W.H. Stanley and J.M. Downey. Hyperbaric oxygen limits infarct size in ischemic rabbit myocardium in vivo. Circulation 88:1931-1936, 1993

122. Cave , A.C., C.S. Collis, J.M. Downey, D.J. Hearse. Improved functional recovery by ischaemic preconditioning is not mediated by adenosine in the globally ischaemic rat heart. Cardiovasc Res 27:663-668, 1993 Times Cited: 137

123. Cohen, M.V., J.M. Downey. Ischemic Preconditioning: Can the protection be bottled? Lancet 342: 6, 1993

124. Ytrehus, K., Y. Liu, J.M. Downey. Ischemic preconditioning protects the heart by protein kinase C activation. Am J Physiol 266:H1145-1152, 1994 Times Cited: 472

125. Cohen, M.V., X-M Yang, Y.Liu, K.S. Snell, J.M. Downey A new model of controlled coronary occlusion in conscious rabbits. Cardiovasc Res 28:61-65, 1994

126. Liu, G.S., S.C. Richards, R.A. Olsson, K.Mullane, R.S. Walsh, J.M. Downey Evidence that the adenosine A3 receptor can mediate preconditioning's protection in isolated rabbit hearts. Cardiovasc Res 28:1057-1061, 1994 Times Cited: 182

127. Liu, Y., Ytrehus, K., J.M. Downey. Evidence that translocation of protein kinase C into cell membranes is the key event in ischemic preconditioning in rabbit myocardium. J. Mol Cell Cardiol 26:661-668, 1994 Times Cited: 222

128. Walsh, R.S., A. Tsuchida, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey: Ketamine/xylazine anesthesia permits a KATP channel antagonist to attenuate preconditioning in rabbit myocardium. Cardiovasc Res 28:1337-1334, 1994

129. Armstrong, S., J.M. Downey, C.E. Ganote. Preconditioning of isolated rabbit cardiomyocytes: Induction by metabolic stress and blockade by the adenosine antagonist SPT and calphostin C, protein kinase C inhibitor. Cardiovasc Res 28: 72-77, 1994 Times Cited: 117

130. Tsuchida, A., X-M. Yang, B. Burckhartt, K.M. Mullane, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Acadesine extends the window of protection afforded by ischemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc Res 28:379-383, 1994

131. Tsuchida, A.,Y. Liu, G.S. Liu, M.V. Cohen, J,M. Downey. a1 adrenergic agonists precondition rabbit ischemic myocardium independent of adenosine by direct activation of protein kinase C. Circ Res 75:576-585, 1994 Times Cited: 203

132. Liu, Y., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M. Chelerytherine, a highly selective protein kinase C inhibitor blocks the antiinfarct effect of ischemic preconditioning in rabbit hearts. Cardiovasc Drugs and Therapy 8:881-882, 1994

133. Ytrehus, K., Y. Liu, A. Tsuchida, T. Miura, S.S. Liu, X-M Yang, D. Herbert, M.V. Cohen and J.M. Downey Rat and Rabbit heart infarction: effects of anesthesia, perfusate, risk zone and method of infarct sizing. Am J Physiol 267:H2383-H2390, 1994  Times Cited: 89

134. Cohen, M.V., X-M Yang, J.M. Downey. Conscious rabbits become tolerant to multiple episodes of ischemic preconditioning. Circ Res 74:998-1004, 1994 Times Cited: 104

135. Gu, J., N. Agrawal, P-P Wang, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. A primary-secondary antibody complex method of immunohistochemistry using rabbit polyclonal antibodies to detect antigens in rabbit tissue. Cell Vision 2:52-59, 1995

136. Goto, M., Y. Liu, X-M Yang, J.L. Ardell, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. The role of bradykinin in the protection of ischemic preconditioning in rabbit hearts. Circ Res 77:611-621, 1995 Times Cited: 298

137. Liu, Y., A. Tsuchida, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Pretreatment with angiotensin II activates protein kinase C and limits infarct size in isolated rabbit hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol 27:883-892, 1995

138. Walsh, R.S., M. Borges, J.D. Thornton, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Hypoxia preconditions rabbit myocardium by an adenosine receptor-mediated mechanism. Can J Cardiol 11:141-146 1995

139. Haynes, J. Jr., B. Obiako, W.J. Thompson, J.M. Downey. Adenosine-induced vasodilation: receptor characterization in pulmonary circulation. Am J Physiol 268:H1862-1868, 1995

140. Cohen, M.V., J.M. Downey Preconditioning during ischemia: basic mechanisms and potential clinical applications. Cardiology in Review 3:137-149 1995

141. Burckhartt, B., X-M Yang, A Tsuchida, K.M. Mullane, J.M. Downey, M.V. Acadesine extends the window of protection afforded by ischaemic preconditioning in conscious rabbits. Cardiovasc Res 29:653-657, 1995

142. Cohen, M.V., K.S. Snell, A. Tsuchida, D.G.L. Van Wylen, J.M. Downey. Effects of anesthesia and KATP channel blockade on interstitial adenosine accumulation in ischemic rabbit myocardium. Basic Res Cardiol 90:410-417, 1995

143. Goto, M., A. Tsuchida, Y. Liu, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Transient inhibition of glucose uptake mimics ischaemic preconditioning by effectively salvaging ischaemic myocardium in rabbit heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 27:1883-1894, 1995

144. Ytrehus, K., R.S. Walsh , S.C. Richards J.M. Downey. Hydrogen peroxide as a protective agent during reperfusion A study in the isolated rabbit heart subjected to regional ischemia. Cardiovasc Res 30:1033-1037, 1995

145. Downey , J.M., M.V. Cohen. Signal transduction in ischemic preconditioning. Zeitschrift Fur Kardiologi 84(sup 4):77-86, 1995

146. Cohen, M.V., R.S. Walsh, M. Goto, J.M. Downey. Hypoxia preconditions rabbit myocardium via adenosine and catecholamine release. J Mol Cell Cardiol 27:1527-1543, 1995

147. Armstrong , S.C. , G.S. Liu, J.M. Downey, C.E. Ganote. Potassium channels and preconditioning of isolated rabbit cardiomyocytes: effects of glyburide and pinacidil. J Mol Cell Cardiol 27:1765-1774, 1995

148. Downey , J.M., M.V. Cohen. Preconditioning: Markers vs epiphenomenon. Basic Res Cardiol 91:35-37, 1996

149. Goto, M., M.V. Cohen, D.G.L. VanWylen, J.M. Downey. Attenuated purine production during subsequent ischemia in preconditioned rabbit myocardium is unrelated to the mechanism of protection. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 28:447-454, 1996

150. Cohen, M.V., J.M. Downey. Myocardial preconditioning promises to be a novel approach to the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Ann Rev Medicine 47:21-29, 1996

151. Ardell, J.L., X-M Yang, B.B. Barron, J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. Endogenous myocardial norepinephrine is not essential for ischemic preconditioning in rabbit heart. Am J Physiol 270: H1078-H1084, 1996

152 Wang, P., K.P. Gallagher, J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. Pretreatment with endothelin-1 mimics ischemic preconditioning against infarction in isolated rabbit heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 28:579-588, 1996

153 Yang X-M, G.F. Baxter, R.J. Heads, D.M. Yellon, J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. Infarct limitation of the second window of protection in a conscious rabbit model. Cardiovasc Res 31:777-783, 1996

154 Liu, G.S., K.A. Jacobson, J.M. Downey. An irreversible A1-selective agonist preconditions rabbit heart. Canadian J Cardiol 12:517-521, 1996

155 Shattok, M.J., C.S. Lawson, D.J. Hearse, J.M. Downey. Electrophysiological charactoristics of repetitive ischemic preconditioning in the pig heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 28:1339-1347, 1996

156. Weinbrenner, C.,P. Wang, J.M.Downey. Loss of Glycogen during preconditioning is not a prerequisite for protection of the rabbit heart. Basic Res Cardiol 91:374-381,1996

157. Cohen, M.V., Y.Liu, G.S. Liu, P.Wang, C. Weinbrenner, G.A.Cordis, D.K. Das, J.M. Downey. Phospholipase D plays a role in ischemic preconditioning in rabbit heart. Circulation 94:1713-1718, 1996

158. Wang, P., J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. Mast Cell degranulation does not contribute to ischemic preconditioning in isolated rabbit hearts. Basic Res Cardiol 91:458-467, 1996

159. Baines, C.P., M. Goto J.M. Downey. Oxygen radicals released during ischemic preconditioning contribute to cardioprotection in rabbit myocardium J Mol Cell Cardiol 29:207-216, 1997 Times Cited: 174

160. Cope, D.K., Impastato, W.K., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Volatile Anesthetics Protect the Ischemic Rabbit Myocardium from Infarction. Anesthesiology 86:699-709, 1997. Times Cited: 143

161. Yang, X.-M., Sato, H., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Protection of Ischemic Preconditioning Is Dependent Upon a Critical Timing Sequence of Protein Kinase C Activation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 29:991-999, 1997.

162. Sato, H., Miki, T., Vallabhapurapu, R.P., Wang, P., Liu, G.-S., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: The Mechanism of Protection from 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride Differs from that of Ischemic Preconditioning in Rabbit Heart. Basic Research in Cardiology 92:339-350, 1997

163. Cohen, M.V., Thornton, J.D., Thornton, C.S., Sato, H., Miki, T., and Downey, J.M.: Intravenous Co-infusion of Adenosine and Norepinephrine Preconditions the Heart Without Adverse Hemodynamic Effects. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 114:236-242, 1997.

164. Cohen, M.V., Yang, X-M, Downey, J.M. Attenuation of S-T segment during repetitive coronary occlusions truly reflects the protection of ischemic preconditioning and is not an epiphenomenon. Basic Res Cardiol 92:426-434, 1997

165. Critz, S.D., Liu, G.-S., Chujo, M., Downey, J.M. Pinacidil but not nicorandil opens ATP-sensitive K+ channels and protects against simulated ischemia in rabbit myocytes.J Mol Cell Cardiol 29: 1123-1130, 1997

166. Weinbrenner, C., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Phosphorylation of Tyrosine 182 of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Correlates with the Protection of Preconditioning in the Rabbit Heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 29:2383-2391, 1997. Times Cited: 143

167. Baines, C.P., L. Wang, M.V. Cohen and J.M. Downey. Protein tyrosine kinase is downstream of protein kinase C for ischemic preconditioning's anti-infarct effect in rabbit heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 30: 383-392,1998 Times Cited: 106

168. Downey , J.M., Cohen, M.V. Arguments in favor of protein kinase C playing an important role in ischemic preconditioning Basic Res Cardiol 92 (suppl 2): 37-39, 1997

169. Armstrong, S.C., Kao, R., Gao, W., Shivell, L.C., Downey, J.M., Honkanen, R.E., Ganote, C.E. Comparison of in vivo preconditioning responses of isolated pig and rabbit cardiomyocytes: effects of a protein phosphatase inhibitor, fostriecin. J Mol Cell Cardiol 29:3009-3024, 1997

170. Hashimi, M.W., Thornton, J.D., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Loss of Myocardial Protection From Ischemic Preconditioning Following Chronic Exposure to R(-)-N6-(2-Phenylisopropyl) Adenosine Is Related to Defect at the Adenosine A1Receptor. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 186: 19-25, 1998.

171. Miki, T., Liu, G.S., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Mild Hypothermia Reduces Infarct Size in the Beating Rabbit Heart: A Practical Intervention for Acute Myocardial Infarction? Basic Research in Cardiology 93: 372-383, 1998.

172. Miki, T., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Opioid Receptor Contributes to Ischemic Preconditioning Through Protein Kinase C Activation in Rabbits. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 186: 3-12, 1998. Times Cited: 89

173. Weinbrenner, C., Baines, C.P., Liu, G-S, Armstrong, S.C., Ganote C.E., Honkanen, R.E., Cohen M.V., Downey, J.M. Fostriecin, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, limits myocardial infarct size even when administered after onset of ischemia. Circulation 98:899-905, 1998

174. Weinbrenner, C., Liu, G.S., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Cyclosporine A limits myocardial infarct size even when administered after onset of ischemia. Cardiovasc Res 38: 676-684, 1998

175. Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: The Warm-up Phenomenon and Ischemic Preconditioning: An Uncertain Relationship (Editorial). European Heart Journal 20:167-168, 1999.

176. Baines CP, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Signal Transduction in Ischemic Preconditioning: The Role of Kinases and Mitochondrial KATP Channels. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 10:741-754, 1999.

177. Baines CP, Liu GS, Birincioglu M, Critz SD, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Ischemic Preconditioning Depends on Interaction Between Mitochondrial KATP Channels and Actin Cytoskeleton. American Journal of Physiology 276:H1361-H1368, 1999. Times Cited: 113

178. Iliodromitis, E.K., Miki, T., Liu, G.S., Downey, J.M., Cohen, M.V., and Kremastinos, D.T.: The PKC Activator PMA Preconditions Rabbit Heart in the Presence of Adenosine Receptor Blockade: Is 5'-Nucleotidase Important? J Mol Cell Cardiol. 30:2201-2211, 1998.

179. Baines CP, Wang L, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Myocardial Protection by Insulin Is Dependent on Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase but not Protein Kinase C or KATP Channels in the Isolated Rabbit Heart. Basic Research in Cardiology 94: 188-198, 1999. .

180. Miki T, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Failure of N-2-Mercaptopropionyl Glycine to Reduce Myocardial Infarction After 3 Days of Reperfusion in Rabbits. Basic Research in Cardiology 94:180-187, 1999.

181. Cohen MV, Yang XM, Downey JM Smaller infarct after preconditioning does not predict extent of early functional improvement of reperfused heart. Am. J. Physiol. 277:H1754-H1761, 1999.

182. Miki T, Swafford AN, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Second window of protection against infarction in conscious rabbits: real or artifactual? J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 31:809-816, 1999

183. Kim SO, Baines CP, Critz SD, Pelech SL, Katz S, Downey JM, Cohen MV Ischemia induced activation of heat shock proteins 27 kinases and casein kinase 2 in the preconditioned rabbit heart. Biochemistry and Cell Biology 77:559-567,1999

184. Liu GS, Cohen MV, Mochly-Rosen D, Downey JM. Protein kinase C-e is responsible for the protection of preconditioning in rabbit cardiomyocytes. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 31:1937-1948, 1999 Times Cited: 110

185. Birincioglu M, Yang XM, Critz SD, Cohen MV, Downey JM. S-T segment voltage during sequential coronary occlusions is an unreliable marker of preconditioning. Am. J. Physiol. 277:H2435-2441, 1999 

186. Nakano A, Baines CP, Kim SO, Pelech SL, Downey JM, Cohen MV, Critz SD. Ischemic preconditioning activates MAPKAPK2 in the isolated rabbit heart. Circ res 86:144-151, 2000

187 Cohen MV, Baines CP, Downey JM. Ischemic preconditioning: from adenosine receptor to Katp channel. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 62:79-109, 2000 Times Cited: 214

188. Nakano, A., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Ischemic preconditioning: from basic mechanisms to clinical applications. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 86:263-275, 2000 

189. Cohen MV, Yang XM, Neumann T, Heusch G, Downey JM.: Favorable Remodeling Enhances Recovery of Regional Myocardial Function in the Weeks Following Infarction in Ischemically Preconditioned Hearts. Circulation 102:579-583, 2000

190. Nakano A, Liu GS, Heusch G, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Exogenous nitric oxide can trigger a preconditioned state through a free radical mechanism, but endogenous nitric oxide is not a trigger of classical ischemic preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 32:1159-1167, 2000.

191. Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Do mitochondrial KATP channels serve as triggers rather than end-effectors of ischemic preconditioning's protection? Basic Research in Cardiology 95:272-4, 2000.

192. Downey , J.M. Anti-preconditioning (an editorial comment) Basic Res Cardiology 95:11, 2000

193. Pain T, Yang XM, Critz SD, Yue Y, Nakano A, Liu GS, Heusch G, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels triggers the preconditioned state by generating free radicals. Circ Res. 87:460-6, 2000 Times Cited: 224

194. Nakano A, Cohen MV, Critz S, Downey JM. SB 203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, abolishes infarct-limiting effect of ischemic preconditioning in isolated rabbit hearts. Basic Res Cardiol. 95: :466-71, 2000

195. Xu Z, Yang XM, Cohen MV, Neumann T, Heusch G, Downey JM. Limitation of infarct size in rabbit hearts by the novel adenosine receptor agonist AMP 579 administered at reperfusion. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 32: :2339-47, 2000

196. Heusch G, Liu GS, Rose J, Cohen MV, Downey JM. No confirmation for a causal role of volume-regulated chloride channels in ischemic preconditioning in rabbits. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 32: 2279-85, 2000

197. Krenz M, Baines CP, Yang XM, Heusch G, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Acute ethanol exposure fails to elicit preconditioning-like protection in in situ rabbit hearts because of its continued presence during ischemia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 37: 601-7, 2001

198. Baxter GF, Hale SL, Miki T, Kloner RA, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Yellon DM. Adenosine A1 agonist at reperfusion trial (AART): results of a three-center, blinded, randomized, controlled experimental infarct study. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 14(6):607-1,. 2000

199. Downey JM and Cohen MV. Mitochondrial K(ATP) channel opening during index ischemia and following myocardial reperfusion in ischemic rat hearts. (an editorial comment) J Mol Cell Cardiol. 33:651-3, 2001

200. Yue Y, Krenz M, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Critz SD. Menadione mimics the infarct-limiting effect of preconditioning in isolated rat hearts.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 281:H590-5,2001

201. Cohen MV, Yang XM, Liu GS, Heusch G, Downey JM. Acetylcholine, bradykinin, opioids, and phenylephrine, but not adenosine, trigger preconditioning by generating free radicals and opening mitochondrial K(ATP) channels. Circ Res.  89:273-8, 2001 Times Cited: 99

202. Xu Z, Downey JM, Cohen MV. AMP 579 reduces contracture and limits infarction in rabbit heart by activating adenosine a2 receptors. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 38:474-8, 2001

203. Xu Z, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Vanden Hoek TL, Yao Z. Attenuation of oxidant stress during reoxygenation by AMP 579 in cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001, 281:H2585-H2589.

204. Krenz M, Baines CP, Heusch G, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Acute Alcohol-induced Protection against Infarction in Rabbit Hearts: Differences from and Similarities to Ischemic Preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol.  33:2015-22, 2001

205. Schulz R, Cohen MV, Behrends M, Downey JM, Heusch G. Signal transduction of ischemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc Res. 52:181-198, 2001Times Cited: 121

206. Heusch G, Liu GS, Rose J, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Swelling-activated chloride channels as effectors of ischemic preconditioning? J Cell Mol Cardiol 33:1891-2, 2001

207. Nakano A, Heusch G, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Preconditioning one myocardial region does not necessarily precondition the whole rabbit heart. Basic Res Cardiol 97: 35-39, 2002

208. Gelpi RJ, Morales C, Cohen MV, Downey JM.. Xanthine oxidase contributes to preconditioning’s preservation of left ventricular developed pressure in isolated rat heart: developed pressure may not be an appropriate end point for studies on preconditioning. Basic Res Cardiol 97: 40-46 2002

209. Oldenburg O, Qin Q, Sharma AR, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Benoit JN. Acetlycholine leads to free radical production dependent on KATP channels, Gi proteins, phosphatidylinositol-3, and Tyrosine kinases. Cardiovasc Res 55:544-52, 2002.

210. Krenz M, Oldenburg O, Wimpee H, Cohen MV, Garlid KD, Critz SD, Downey JM, Benoit JN. Opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels causes generation of free radicals in vascular smooth muscle cells. Basic Res Cardiol 97:365-73, 2002.

211. Krenz M, Yang XM, Qin Q, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Dose-response relationships of the protective and the anti-protective effects of acute ethanol exposure in isolated rabbit hearts. Heart Disease 4:276-81, 2002

212. Xu Z, Jiao Z, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Protection from AMP 579 can be added to that from either cariporide or ischemic preconditioning in ischemic rabbit heart. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol.40:510-8, 2002

213. Krieg T, Qin Q, McIntosh EC, Cohen MV, Downey JM. ACh and adenosine activate PI3-kinase in rabbit hearts through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 283:H2322-30, 2002

214. Qin Q, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Acetylcholine but not adenosine triggers preconditioning through PI3-kinase and a tyrosine kinase. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 284:H727-34, 2003

215. Krieg T, Landsberger M, Alexeyev MF, Felix SB, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Activation of Akt is essential for acetylcholine to trigger generation of oxygen free radicals. Cardiovasc Res. 58:196-202, 2003

216. Oldenburg O, Critz SD, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Acetylcholine-induced production of reactive oxygen species in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3- and Src-kinase activation and mitochondrial K(ATP) channel opening. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 35: 653-660, 2003

217. Oldenburg O, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Mitochondrial K(ATP) channels in preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 35: 569-75, 2003

218. Zhang SJ, Yang XM, Liu GS, Cohen MV, Pemberton K, Downey JM. CGX-1051, a peptide from Conus snail venom, attenuates infarction in rabbit hearts when administered at reperfusion. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 42:764-71. 2003

219. Xu Z, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Timing and Duration of Administration Are Crucial for Antiinfarct Effect of AMP 579 Infused at Reperfusion in Rabbit Heart.
Heart Dis. 5:368-71, 2003

220. Yellon DM, Downey JM. Preconditioning the myocardium: from cellular physiology to clinical cardiology. Physiol Rev. 83:1113-51. 2003 Times Cited: 90

221. Oldenburg O, Yang XM, Krieg T, Garlid KD, Cohen MV, Grover GJ, Downey JM. P1075 opens mitochondrial K(ATP) channels and generates reactive oxygen species resulting in cardioprotection of rabbit hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 35:1035-42, 2003

222. Oldenburg O, Qin Q, Krieg T, Yang XM, Philipp S, Critz SD, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Bradykinin induces mitochondrial ROS generation via NO, cGMP, PKG , and mKATP channel opening and leads to cardioprotection. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 286:H468-76, 2004

223. Krieg T, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Mitochondria and their role in preconditioning's trigger phase. Basic Res Cardiol. 98:228-34, 2003

224. Krenz M, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Protective and anti-protective effects of acute ethanol exposure in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Pathophysiology. 10:113-119, 2004

225. Yang XM, Krieg T, Cui L, Downey JM, Cohen MV. NECA and bradykinin at reperfusion reduce infarction in rabbit hearts by signaling through PI3K, ERK, and NO. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 36: 411-21, 2004

226. Krieg T, Cui L, Qin Q, Cohen MV, Downey JM.  Mitochondrial ROS generation following acetylcholine-induced EGF receptor transactivation requires metalloproteinase cleavage of proHB-EGF. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 36:435-43, 2004

227. Krieg T, Yang XM, Downey JM, Schaffer SW, Cohen MV.  Augmented taurine release is not the mechanism of ischemic preconditioning's cardioprotection. Amino Acids. 3:263-6. 2004

228. Qin Q, Yang XM, Cui L, Critz SD, Cohen MV, Browner N, Lincoln TM, Downey JM. Exogenous NO triggers preconditioning by a cGMP- and mitoKATP-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 287:H712-8 2004

229. Krieg T, Qin Q, Philipp S, Alexeyev MF, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Acetylcholine and bradykinin trigger preconditioning in the heart through a pathway that includes Akt and NOS. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol.287:H2606-11, 2004

230. Yang XM, Proctor JB, Cui L, Krieg T, Downey JM, Cohen MV.  Multiple, brief coronary occlusions during early reperfusion protect rabbit hearts by targeting cell signaling pathways. J Am Coll Cardiol.  44:1103-10, 2004

231. Krieg T, Philipp S, Cui L, Dostmann WR, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Peptide blockers of PKG inhibit ROS generation by acetylcholine and bradykinin in cardiomyocytes but fail to block protection in the whole heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 288:H1976-81. 2005

232. Yang XM, Philipp S, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Postconditioning's protection is not dependent on circulating blood factors or cells but involves adenosine receptors and requires PI3-kinase and guanylyl cyclase activation. Basic Res Cardiol. 100(1):57-63, 2005

233. Downey JM, Cohen MV. We think we see a pattern emerging here (Editorial). Circulation. Jan 18;111(2):120-1, 2005

234. Critz SD, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Mechanisms of acetylcholine- and bradykinin-induced preconditioning. Vascul Pharmacol.  42:201-9, 2005

235. Costa AD, Garlid KD, West IC, Lincoln TM, Downey JM, Cohen MV, Critz SD. Protein kinase G transmits the cardioprotective signal from cytosol to mitochondria. Circ Res. 97:329-36. 2005

236. Solenkova NV, Solodushko V, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Endogenous adenosine protects the preconditioned heart during the early minutes of reperfusion by activating Akt. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 290:H441-9. 2006

237. Philipp S, Cui L, Ludolph B, Kelm M, Schulz R, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Desferoxamine and ethyl-3,4 dihydroxybenzoate protect myocardium by activating NOS and generating mitochondrial ROS . Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 290:H450-7. 2006

238. Downey JM, Cohen MV. Unraveling the mysteries of classical preconditioning.
J Mol Cell Cardiol. 39:845-8. 2005

239. Philipp S, Critz SD, Cui L, Solodushko V, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Localizing extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in pharmacological preconditioning's trigger pathway. Basic Res Cardiol. 101:159-67. 2006

240. Xu Z, Mueller RA, Park SS, Boysen PG, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Cardioprotection with adenosine A2 receptor activation at reperfusion. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 46:794-802. 2005

241. Cohen MV, Yang XM, Downey JM. Nitric oxide is a preconditioning mimetic and cardioprotectant and is the basis of many available infarct-sparing strategies. Cardiovasc Res.  70:231-9.  2006

242. Downey JM, Cohen MV. A really radical observation (Editorial) Basic Res Cardiol. 101:190-1. 2006

243. Philipp S, Yang XM, Cui L, Davis AM, Downey JM, Cohen MV.  Postconditioning protects rabbit hearts through a protein kinase C-adenosine A2b receptor cascade. Cardiovasc Res. 70:308-14. 2006

244. Cohen MV, Downey JM.  AMISTAD trials: possible reasons for lack of success.(Letter to the editor) J Am Coll Cardiol.  47:1236. 2006

245. Forster K, Paul I, Solenkova N, Staudt A, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Felix SB, Krieg T. NECA at reperfusion limits infarction and inhibits formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by activating p70S6 kinase. Basic Res Cardiol.101:319-26.  2006

246. Yang XM, Philipp S, Downey JM, Cohen MV.  Atrial natriuretic peptide administered just prior to reperfusion limits infarction in rabbit hearts. Basic Res Cardiol. 101:311-8. 2006

247. Downey JM, Cohen MV.  Reducing infarct size in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 48:363-71. 2006

248. Iliodromitis EK, Georgiadis M, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Bofilis E, Kremastinos DT. Protection from postconditioning depends on the number of short ischemic insults in anesthetized pigs. Basic Res Cardiol. 101:502-7. 2006

249. Solenkova NV, Maslov LN, Downey JM. ATP-dependent K+channels and the regulation of cardiac resistance to ischemic and reperfusion injuries. Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter.  2:28-31. 2006  

250. Downey JM and Cohen MV. (Revascularization) Summaries of Ten Seminal Papers. Dialogues in Cardiovascular Medicine 11:319-330, 2006

251. Cohen MV, Yang XM, Downey JM. The pH hypothesis of postconditioning: staccato reperfusion reintroduces oxygen and perpetuates myocardial acidosis. Circulation.115:1895-903.  2007

252. Cohen MV, Philipp S, Krieg T, Cui L, Kuno A, Solodushko V, Downey JM. Preconditioning-mimetics bradykinin and DADLE activate PI3-kinase through divergent pathways. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 42:842-51. 2007

253. Tissier R, Hamanaka K, Kuno A, Parker JC, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Total liquid ventilation provides ultra-fast cardioprotective cooling. 49:601-5. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007

254. Kuno A, Critz SD, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Nicorandil opens mitochondrial K(ATP) channels not only directly but also through a NO- PKG -dependent pathway. Basic Res Cardiol. 102:73-9.  2007

255. Downey JM, Davis AM, Cohen MV. Signaling pathways in ischemic preconditioning. Heart Fail Rev. 12(3-4):181-8.  2007

256. Kuno A, Critz SD, Cui L, Solodushko V, Yang XM, Krahn T, Albrecht B, Philipp S, Cohen MV, Downey JM.  Protein kinase C protects preconditioned rabbit hearts by increasing sensitivity to adenosine during early reperfusion. J Mol Cell Cardiol 43:262-71. 2007

257. Tissier R, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Protecting the acutely ischemic myocardium beyond reperfusion therapies: Are we any closer to realizing the dream of infarct size elimination? Archives de Maladies du Coer et des Vaisseaux 100:794-802. 2007

258. Tissier R, Berdeaux A, Ghaleh B, Couvreur N, Krieg T, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Making the heart resistant to infarction: How can we further decrease infarct size? Frontiers of Bioscience 13:284-301. 2007

259. Dost T, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Redox signaling triggers protection during the reperfusion rather than the ischemic phase of preconditioning. Basic Res Cardiol. 103:378-84,  2008

260. Liu Y, Yang XM, Iliodromitis EK, Kremastinos DT, Dost T, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Redox signaling at reperfusion is required for protection from ischemic preconditioning but not from a direct PKC activator. Basic Res Cardiol. 103:54-9. 2008

261. Costa AD, Pierre SV, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Garlid KD. cGMP signalling in pre- and post-conditioning: the role of mitochondria. Cardiovasc Res. 77:344-52, 2008

262. Cohen MV, Downey JM. Adenosine: trigger and mediator of cardioprotection. Basic Res Cardiol.103:203-15, 2008

263. Downey JM, Cohen MV. Bypassing big pharma.(Editorial) Circulation. 116:1344-5, 2007

264. Downey JM, Cohen MV. Free radicals in the heart: friend or foe? Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 6:589-91, 2008

265. Downey JM, Krieg T, Cohen MV. Mapping preconditioning's signaling pathways: an engineering approach. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1123:187-96, 2008

266. Cohen MV, Yang XM, Downey JM. Acidosis, oxygen, and interference with mitochondrial permeability transition pore formation in the early minutes of reperfusion are critical to postconditioning's success. Basic Res Cardiol. 103:464-71. 2008

267. Cohen MV, Downey JM. Oestrogen plays a permissive role in cardioprotection.(Editorial) Cardiovasc Res. 1;79(3):353-4 2008

266. Downey JM, Cohen MV. Free radicals in the heart: friend or foe? Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2008 Jun;6(5):589-91.

267. Downey JM, Krieg T, Cohen MV. Mapping preconditioning's signaling pathways: an engineering approach. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1123:187-96. 2008

268. Dost T, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Redox signaling triggers protection during the reperfusion rather than the ischemic phase of preconditioning. Basic Res Cardiol.  103:378-84. 2008

269. Downey JM, Cohen MV. O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine: a new piece of the cardioprotection puzzle? Circ Res.104:7-8.  2009

270. Tissier R, Couvreur N, Ghaleh B, Bruneval P, Lidouren F, Morin D, Zini R, Bize A, Chenoune M, Belair MF, Mandet C, Douheret M, Dubois-Rande JL, Parker JC, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Berdeaux A. Rapid cooling preserves the ischaemic myocardium against mitochondrial damage and left ventricular dysfunction. Cardiovasc Res. 83:345-53. 2009

271. Cohen MV, Downey JM. Adenosine at reperfusion: a conundrum ready to be resolved. J Am Coll Cardiol.  53:718-9. 2009

272. Cohen MV, Downey JM. Modulation of receptor sensitivity: possible therapeutic target? Br J Pharmacol. 156:899-900. 2009

273. Krieg T, Liu Y, Rütz T, Methner C, Yang XM, Dost T, Felix SB, Stasch JP, Cohen MV, Downey JM. BAY 58-2667, a nitric oxide-independent guanylyl cyclase activator, pharmacologically post-conditions rabbit and rat hearts. Eur Heart J.30:1607-13. 2009

274. Downey JM, Cohen MV. Why do we still not have cardioprotective drugs? Circ J.  73:1171-7. 2009

275. Yang XM, Liu Y, Liu Y, Tandon N, Kambayashi J, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Attenuation of infarction in cynomolgus monkeys: preconditioning and postconditioning. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010 Jan;105(1):119-28.

276. Iliodromitis EK, Downey JM, Heusch G, Kremastinos DT. What Is the Optimal Postconditioning Algorithm? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec;14(4):269-73.

277. Cohen MV, Yang X, Downey JM. A(2b) adenosine receptors can change their spots. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Apr;159(8):1595-7.

278. Yang X, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Mechanism of cardioprotection by early ischemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2010 Jun;24(3):225-34.

279. Liu Y, Yang X, Yang XM, Walker S, Förster K, Cohen MV, Krieg T, Downey JM. AMP579 is revealed to be a potent A2b-adenosine receptor agonist in human 293 cells and rabbit hearts. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010 Jan;105(1):129-37

280. Cohen MV, Downey JM. Ischemic Postconditioning: From Receptor to End-Effector. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011, Mar 1;14(5):821-31

281. Tissier R, Chenoune M, Ghaleh B, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Berdeaux A. The small chill: mild hypothermia for cardioprotection? Cardiovasc Res. 2010 Dec 1;88(3):406-14

282. Methner C, Schmidt K, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Krieg T. Both A2a and A2b adenosine receptors at reperfusion are necessary to reduce infarct size in mouse hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Oct;299(4):H1262-4.

283. Cohen MV, Yang XM, Liu Y, Solenkova NV, Downey JM. Cardioprotective PKG -independent NO signaling at reperfusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Dec;299(6):H2028-36.

284. Grube K, Rüdebusch J, Xu Z, Böckenholt T, Methner C, Müller T, Cuello F, Zimmermann K, Yang X, Felix SB, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Krieg T. Evidence for an intracellular localization of the adenosine A(2B) receptor in rat cardiomyocytes. Basic Res Cardiol. 2011 May;106(3):385-96.

285. Yang X, Xin W, Yang XM, Kuno A, Rich TC, Cohen MV, Downey JM. A(2B) adenosine receptors inhibit superoxide production from mitochondrial complex I in rabbit cardiomyocytes via a mechanism sensitive to Pertussis toxin. Br J Pharmacol. 2011, Jul;163(5):995-1006. 

286. Yang X, Liu Y, Yang XM, Hu F, Cui L, Swingle MR, Honkanen RE, Soltani P, Tissier R, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Cardioprotection by mild hypothermia during ischemia involves preservation of ERK activity. Basic Res Cardiol. 2011, May;106(3):421-430. 

287. Schwartz Longacre L, Kloner RA, Arai AE, Baines CP, Bolli R, Braunwald E, Downey J, Gibbons RJ, Gottlieb RA, Heusch G, Jennings RB, Lefer DJ, Mentzer RM, Murphy E, Ovize M, Ping P, Przyklenk K, Sack MN, Vander Heide RS, Vinten-Johansen J, Yellon DM. New horizons in cardioprotection: recommendations from the 2010 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop. Circulation. 2011 Sep 6;124(10):1172-9. 

288. Cohen MV, Downey JM. Is it time to translate ischemic preconditioning's mechanism of cardioprotection into clinical practice? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Sep-Dec;16(3-4):273-80

289. Darbera L, Chenoune M, Lidouren F, Ghaleh B, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Berdeaux A, Tissier R. Adenosine and Opioid Receptors Do Not Trigger the Cardioprotective Effect of Mild Hypothermia. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Jun;17(2):173-80

290. Tissier R, Cohen MV, Downey JM. Does mild hypothermia protect against reperfusion injury? The debate continues. Basic Res Cardiol. 2012 May 1;94(2):217-25

291. Xin W, Yang X, Rich TC, Krieg T, Barrington R, Cohen MV, Downey JM. All preconditioning-related G protein-coupled receptors can be demonstrated in the rabbit cardiomyocyte. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther.2012 Jun;17(2):190-8

292. Tissier R, Ghaleh B, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Berdeaux A. Myocardial protection with mild hypothermia. Cardiovasc Res. 2012 May 1;94(2):217-25. 

293. Yang XM, Liu Y, Cui L, Yang X, Liu Y, Tandon N, Kambayashi J, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Platelet P2Y12 blockers confer direct postconditioning-like protection in reperfused rabbit hearts. Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2013 May;18(3):251-62

294. Yang XM, Liu Y, Cui L, Yang X, Liu Y, Tandon N, Kambayashi J, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Two classes of anti-platelet drugs reduce anatomical infarct size in monkey hearts. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2013 Apr;27(2):109-15

295. Yang XM, Cui L, Alhammouri A, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Triple Therapy Greatly Increases Myocardial Salvage During Ischemia/Reperfusion in the in situ Rat Heart. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2013 Oct;27(5):403-12.

296. Cohen MV, Downey JM. Combined cardioprotectant and antithrombotic actions of platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonists in acute coronary syndrome: just what the doctor ordered. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 19:179-90 2014

297. Cohen MV, Downey JM. Signalling pathways and mechanisms of protection in pre- and postconditioning: historical perspective and lessons for the future. Br J Pharmacol.  2015 Apr;172(8):1913-32.

298. Yang XM, Cui L, White J, Kuck J, Ruchko MV, Wilson GL, Alexeyev M, Gillespie MN, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Mitochondrially targeted Endonuclease III has a powerful anti-infarct effect in an in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Basic Res Cardiol. 2015 Mar;110(2):459.

299. Iliodromitis EK, Cohen MV, Dagres N, Andreadou I, Kremastinos DT, Downey JM. What is Wrong With Cardiac Conditioning? We May be Shooting at Moving Targets. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. (in press)

300. Bell RM, Sivaraman V, Kunuthur SP, Cohen MV, Downey JM, Yellon DM. Cardioprotective Properties of the Platelet P2Y12 Receptor Inhibitor, Cangrelor: Protective in Diabetics and Reliant Upon the Presence of Blood. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. (in press)

301. Cohen MV, Downey JM. Status of P2Y12 treatment must be considered in evaluation of myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res. 2015, Apr 1;106(1):8


BOOKS AND BOOK CHAPTERS

1. Munch, Douglas F., and James M. Downey. Regulation of Myocardial Contractility. In: Cardiac Pharmacology R.D. Wilkerson, ed., Academic Press, New York, 1981.

2. Downey, James M. and Douglas F. Munch. Evaluation of Drug Effects on Coronary Blood Flow and Oxygen Consumption. In: Cardiac Pharmacology, R.D. Wilkerson, ed., Academic Press, New York, 1981.

3. Downey, James M. The Extravascular Coronary Resistance. In: The Coronary Artery, Stanley Kalsner, ed., Croom-Helm, London, 1982.

4. Downey, James, and Steven Rogers. Interfacing the PET Computer, Howard Sams, Indianapolis, 1981.

5. Downey, James M. and Don Rindsburg. Interfacing Projects for the Sinclair Computers, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1983).

6. Downey, James M., D. Rindsburg, and W. Ischerwood. Easy Interfacing Projects for the VIC 20, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984.

7. Downey, James M., D. Rindsburg, and W. Ischerwood. Easy Interfacing Projects for the Commodore 64, Prentice_Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984.

8. Downey, James M. Why the endocardium? In: Therapeutic approaches to Myocardial Infarction, Hearse and Yellon, ed., Raven Press, London, 1984.

9. Miura, T., D.M. Yellon, and J.M. Downey. Myocardial Infarction. In: Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Heart, 2nd Ed. Nicholas Sperelakis, ed., pp 955-974, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, 1989.

10. Downey, J.M. Extravascular coronary resistance. In: Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Heart, 2nd Ed. Nicholas Sperlakis, ed., pp 939-955, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, 1989.

11. Hearse, D.J., A.S. Manning, J.M. Downey, and D.M. Yellon. Allopurinol,xanthine oxidase and myocardial injury. In: Superoxide and Superoxide Dismutase in Chemistry, Biology, and Medicine, Giuseppe Rotilio, ed., Elsevier, New York,1986.

12. Downey, J.M., L.J. Eddy, C. Shirato, P. Molina, and M. Molina. Xanthine oxidase is an unlikely source of free radicals in the ischemic human heart. In: Oxygen Radicals in the Pathophysiology of Heart Disease, Pawan Singal, ed., Martinus Nijhoff, NY (1988).

13. Hearse, D.J., A.S. Manning, J.M. Downey, D.M. Yellon. Oxygen derived free radicals and myocardial injury. A critical role for xanthine oxidase? in Oxygen Free Radicals in Shock. Karger: Basil 1986.

14. Downey, J.M. The extravascular coronary resistance. In: Coronary Circulation from Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Implications, J.A.E. Spaan, A.V.G.Brushke, and A.C. Gittenberger, eds., Marinus Nijhoff, NY, CIP-GEGEVENS, The Haag, 1987.

15. Downey, J.M. and M.V. Cohen. Nutrition of ischemic myocardium through venous level collaterals. In: Imaging Analysis and Simulation of the Cardiovascular System. (Proceedings of the Henry Goldberg Workshop), S. Sideman and R. Beyer eds., Freund London 1990.

16. Omar, B., J.M. McCord and J.M. Downey. Ischemia and Reperfusion. in: Oxidative Stress, Helmut Sies, ed. Academic Press, London 1991

17. Seven chapters on cardiovascular physiology in: Essential Medical Physiology, Leonard Johnson, Editor, Raven Press, New York, pp 151-230, 1992

18. Cohen, M.V., and J.M. Downey Venous level collaterals in the coronary system. in: Collateral Circulation, W. Schaper, ed. Klewer, Norwell MA 1993

19. Cardiovascular Research Journal focused issue: "Spotlight on the cardioprotective properties of adenosine" J.M. Downey and M. B. Forman, eds, Vol 27 (1), 1993

20. Downey, J.M. and D.M. Yellon: Do free radicals contribute to myocardial cell death during ischemia-reperfusion? in: Myocardial Protection; the Pathophysiology of Reperfusion and Reperfusion Injury. D.M. Yellon and R.B.Jennings eds, pp 35-59 Raven, New York, 1992

21. Downey, J.M., K. Ytrehus, Y. Liu Adenosine and the ant-infarct effects of preconditioning. in ischemic preconditioning: the concept of endogenous cardioprotection. K. Przyklenk, R.A. Kloner and D.M. Yellon ed. pp 137-152. Klewer, Boston 1994

22. Downey, J.M., M.V. Cohen, K. Ytrehus, Y. Liu: Cellular Mechanisms of ischemic preconditioning: the role of adenosine and protein kinase C. in: Cellular, Biochemical and Molecular Aspects of Reperfusion Injury. D.K. Das ed. pp 82-98, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1994 Times Cited: 94

23. Downey, J.M. Extravascular coronary resistance. In: Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Heart, 3rd edition. Nicholas Sperlakis, ed., pp 1109-1124, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, 1995.

24. Downey, J.M. M.V. Cohen, K. Ytrehus, Y. Liu. Cellular mechanisms of ischemic preconditioning: the role of protein kinase C. in Cellular, biochemical and molecular aspects of reperfusion injury D. Das ed. Ann New York Acad Science 723:82-99, 1994

25. Downey, J.M., T. Miura. The role of adenosine in ischemic preconditioning. in: Cardiac Adaptation and Failure. M Hori, Y. Maruyama, R.S. Reneman, eds. Springer-Verlag, NewYork. pp 147-166, 1994

26. Downey, J.M., Liu, G.S., and Cohen, M.V.: Do Adenosine A3 Receptors Cause Preconditioning? In Purines and Myocardial Protection. Eds. Abd-Elfattah, A.-S. A., and Wechsler, A.S. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1996, pp. 447-458.

27. Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Mechanisms of Preconditioning: Correlates and Epiphenomena. In Ischaemia: Preconditioning and Adaptation. Eds Marber, M.S., and Yellon, D.M. Bios Scientific Publishers, Oxford, 1996, pp. 21-34.

28. Cohen, M.V., Liu, Y., and Downey, J.M.: Activation of Protein Kinase C is Critical to the Protection of Preconditioning. In Myocardial Preconditioning. Eds. Parratt, J.R., and Wainwright, C.L. R.G. Landes Co., Austin, TX, 1996, pp. 185-206.

29. Goto, M., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: The Role of Protein Kinase C in Ischemic Preconditioning. In Myocardial Preservation, Preconditioning, and Adaptation: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 793. Ed. Das, D.K. The New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1996, pp. 177-190.

30. Liu, G.-S., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Adenosine, Ischemia and Preconditioning. InPurinergic Approaches in Experimental Therapeutics. Eds. Jacobson, K.A., and Jarvis, M.F. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York, 1997, pp. 153-173.

31. Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Signal Transduction in Ischemic Preconditioning. In Alfred Benzon Symposium 41. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1997, pp. 339-355.

32. Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Signal Transduction in Ischemic Preconditioning. InAnalytical and Quantitative Cardiology: From Genetics to Function. Vol 430. Eds. Sideman, S., and Beyar, R.Plenum Press, New York. 1997, pp 39-56.

33. Downey, J.M. Six chapters in Essential Medical Physiology, Second Edition. Ed. Leonard R. Johnson, Lippencott-Raven, Philadelphia, 1997, pp 149-199 and 825-834.

34. Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Preconditioning: Markers vs. epiphenomena. In: New Paradigms of Coronary Artery Disease. Eds. Heusch, G., and Schulz, R., Darmstadt: Steinkopff: Springer, New York, 1996, pp 153-155.

35 Weinbrenner, C. and Downey, J.M.,: Protein kinase C- the key enzyme in ischemic preconditioning? In Adenosine Cardioprotection and its Clinical Applicaton. Ed. R.M Mentzer, M. Kitakaze, J.M. Downey and M. Hori. Klewer, Norwell Mass, 1997pp73-92.

36 Downey, J.M. and Cohen, M.V.: Preconditioning: Markers vs epiphenomenon. In New Paradigms of Coronary Artery Disease. Ed. G Heusch and R. Schultz. Darmstadt: SteinKopff; New York, 1996 pp 153-155.

37.Goto M, Cohen MV, Downey JM.: The role of protein kinase C in ischemic preconditioning. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996 Sep 30;793:177-90

38. Downey, J.M. and Cohen, M.V.: The biology of preconditioning. In: Stunning, Hibernation and Preconditioning. Ed. G.R. Heyndrickx, S.F. Vatner and W. Winjs. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia 1997. pp 105-120.

39. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Ed. Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M., Gelpi, R.J. and Slezak, J. Klewer Academic Publishers, Boston 1998

40. Downey, J.M. and Cohen, M.V. Preconditioning (Ch 4) in: Myocardial Viability: A Clinical and Scientific Treatise. Dilsizian V., Ed, Futura Armonk, NY 2000, pp55-75.

41. Downey, J.M. and G Heusch. Pumping and electrical activity of the heart. in: Heart Physiology and Pathophysiology N. Sperelakis, Y. Kurachi, A. Terzic, and M.V. Cohen, eds. Academic Press, New York. 2001, pp3-18

42. Downey, J.M. and G Heusch: Control of Cardiac output and its alterations during exercise and in heart failure. in: Heart Physiology and Pathophysiology N. Sperelakis, Y. Kurachi, A. Terzic, and M.V. Cohen, eds. Academic Press, New York. 2001, pp 61-69.

43. M. V. Cohen and J.M. Downey: Ischemic preconditioning: description, mechanism and significance. in: Heart Physiology and Pathophysiology N. Sperelakis, Y. Kurachi, A. Terzic, and M.V. Cohen, eds. Academic Press, New York. 2001, pp 867-886.

44. M. Krenz, M.V. Cohen and J.M. Downey: The protective and anti protective effects of ethanol in a myocardial infarct model. in Alcohol and Wine in Health and Disease. D.K. Das and F. Ursini, eds. New York Academy of Science, NY 2002, pp103-114.

45. J.M. Downey and M.V. Cohen: Ischemic preconditioning. In Myocardial Ischemia: From Mechanisms to Therapeutic Potentials. D.V. Cokkinos, C. Pantos, G. Heusch, and H. Tagtmeyer eds. Springer Science, New York 2006, pp 99-112.

ABSTRACTS

1. Downey, J.M., H.F. Downey, and E.S. Kirk. Effect of myocardial strains on distribution of coronary blood flow in systole. The Physiologist 13:183, 1970.

2. Demibitsky, W.P., J.M. Downey, E.S. Kirk, and Edmund H. Sonnenblick. Inhibition of right coronary blood flow by high right ventricular pressure. Circulation 44:II-158, 1971.

3. Cohn, P.F., E.S. Kirk, J.M. Downey, Edmund H.Sonnenblick, and Richard Gorlin. Autoradiographic evaluation of myocardial collateral circulation. Circulation 44:II-158, 1971.

4. Forman, R., E.S. Kirk, J.M. Downey, and E.H. Sonnenblick. Reduced subendocardial blood flow and ventricular contractile force caused by nitroglycerine. Am. J. Cardiol. 29:262, 1972.

5. Downey, J.M., B.N. Singh, D.F. Cowan, C.W. Urschel, and E.S. Kirk. Adequacy of coronary perfusion during hemorrhagic hypotension. Fed. Proc. 31:329, 1972.

6. Snyder, R., J.M. Downey, and E.S. Kirk. The contribution of active muscle contraction to the extravascular component of coronary resistance. Presented at the American Congress of Engineering in Medicine and Biology, Bal Harbor, Florida, 1972.

7. Downey, J.M., and E.S. Kirk. Inhibition of coronary blood flow by a sluice mechanism and an estimate of the intramyocardial pressure. Physiologist 16:299, 1973.

8. Downey, J.M. Intramyocardial compression in the fibrillating heart. Physiologist 18:196, 1975.

9. Parker, P.E., H.F. Downey, J.M. Downey, and F.A. Bashour. Myocardial contractility during coronary reperfusion. Fed. Proc. 35:345, 1976.

10. Russell, R.E. and J.M. Downey. Inhibitory effect of cardiac contraction on collateral blood flow. Clin. Res. 25:7A, 1977.

11. Downey, J.M. An evaluation of the coronary constriction following propranolol. The Physiologist 20:22, 1977.

12. Downey, J., V. Hemphill, and R. Chagrasulis. Compression of the coronary arteries by the fibrillating heart. Fed. Proc. 37:418, 1978.

13. Downey, J.M., L.J. Eddy, M. Goodlett, and K. Dowling. Failure of isoproterenol to alter metabolic turnover in ischemic myocardium. Fed. Proc.38:905, 1979.

14. Munch, D.F. and J.M. Downey. A critical test of DPTI as an index of subendocardial flow. Fed. Proc. 38:1305, 1979.

15. Eddy, L.J., M.D. Goodlett, and J.M. Downey. Effect of propranolol on high energy phosphate turnover in ischemic myocardium. The Physiologist 22:33,1979.

16. Downey, J.M., R.D. Wilkerson, and D.F. Munch. An autoradiographic method for prediction of infarct size in dogs. Circulation 60:II-05, 1979.

17. Munch, D.F., H.T. Comer, and J.M. Downey. Graded barium contracture: A model of systole. Fed. Proc. 39:1170, 1979.

18. Downey, J.M., R.D. Wilkerson, and D.F. Munch. Inability of isoproterenol and propranolol to alter lateral infarct size in dogs. The Physiologist 23:163, 1980.

19. Lee, J., J.M. Downey, and D.E. Chambers. Coronary artery capacitance. The Physiologist 24:26, 1981.

20. Downey, J.M., J. Lee, and D.E. Chambers. Coronary critical closing pressure corrected for coronary capacitance effects. The Physiologist 24:26, 1981.

21. Chambers, D.E., J. Lee, and J.M. Downey. Absence of overlapping circulations between adjacent coronary arteries. The Physiologist 24:27, 1981.

22. Eddy, L.J., J.M. Downey, and D.E. Chambers. Lack of a direct metabolic effect of Fructose-1,6-Diphosphate in canine myocardium. Fed. Proc. 40:730, 1981.

23. Downey, J.M. D. Wyatt, and J. Lee. A load line analysis of the coronary collateral flow. Fed. Proc. 40:546, 1981.

24. Holloway, H., P. Kvietys, J. Downey, J.C. Parker, and A.E. Taylor. Estimation of pulmonary capillary pressure in intact dog. Fed.Proc. 40:404, 1981.

25. Chambers, D.E., D.M. Yellon, D.J. Hearse, and J.M. Downey. Flurbiprofen may limit infarct size 6 hours but not 24 hours following coronary occlusion in the dog. Fed. Proc. 41:7372, 1982.

26. Downey, J.M., J. Lee, and D. Chambers. Capacitive time constant of the coronary artery. Circulation 66:II-42, 1982.

27. Downey, J.M., D.J. Hearse, and D.M. Yellon. The application of risk zone analysis to the study of infarct size limitation in the closed-chest dog with coronary artery embolization. Journal of Physiology 339:7, 1983.

28. Chambers, D.E., D.A. Parks, G. Patterson, S. Yoshida, K. Burton, L.F.Parmley, J.M. McCord, and J.M. Downey. Role of oxygen derived radicals in myocardial ischemia. Fed. Proc. 42:4696, 1983.

29. Yellon, D.M., D.J. Hearse, M. Maxwell, D.E. Chambers, and J.M. Downey. Verapamil limits infarct size 24 hours following coronary embolization in the dog. Fed. Proc. 42:6163, 1983.

30. Yoshida, S., D.E. Chambers, G. Patterson, D.M. Yellon, D.J. Hearse, and J.M. Downey. Limitation of myocardial infarct size in coronary embolized dogs. Fed. Proc. :6165, 1983.

31. Downey, J.M., D.J. Hearse, S. Yoshida, M.P. Maxwell, and D.M. Yellon. Verapamil and nifedipine limits infarct size in the dog. J. Mol. and Cell. Cardiol.15(1):105, 1983.

32. Yellon, D.M., M.P. Maxwell, D.J. Hearse, S. Yoshida, L. Eddy, and J.M.Downey. Flurbiprofen causes an apparent but not real limitation of infarct size in the dog. J. Mol. and Cell. Cardiol. 15(a):395, 1983.

33. Yellon, D.M., J.M. Downey, D.J. Hearse, M.P. Maxwell, and S. Yoshida. Calcium antagonists limit infarct size. Circulation 68(Supp. III):186, 1983.

34. Bulkley, G.B., W.A. Womack, J.M. Downey, P.R. Kvietys, and D.N. Granger. Quantitative Characterization of segmental collateral blood flow in the canine small intestine. Fed. Proc. 43:323, 1984.

35. Roy, R., D.E. Chambers, J. McCord, and J.M. Downey. Myocardial ischemia causes xanthine dehydrogenase to be convected to xanthine oxidase. Fed. Proc. 43:323, 1984.

36. Akizuki S., S. Yoshida, D.E. Chambers, L. Eddy, L. Parmley, D. Yellon,and J.M. Downey. Blockage of the O2 radical producing enzyme, xanthine oxidase reduces infarct size in the dog. Fed. Proc. 43:540, 1984.

37. Yoshida, S., S. Akizuki, D. Gowski, and J.M. Downey. Discrepancy between collateral blood flow measured by microspheres and by diffusible indicators in canine hears. Fed. Proc. 43:1004, 1984.

38. Downey, J.M., D. Chambers, S. Yoshida, M. Harpin, and S. Akizuki. Functional and anatomical measurement of overlapping circulations between adjacent coronary arteries. Fed. Proc. 43:1004, 1984.

39. Downey, J.M., S. Yoshida, S. Akizuki, D. Gowski. Microspheres fail to measure all of the coronary collateral flow in the dog. Circulation 70:II14, 1984.

40. Downey, J., S. Akizuki, Y. Kudoh, L. Eddy, M. Maxwell, D. Hearse and D. Yellon. Two Beta blockers: Metoprolol and Cetamolol fail to limit infarct size in the dog. Circulation 70: II 179, 1984.

41. Yellon, D.M., V. Richard, D. J. Hearse, J. Deleiris, M. Maxwell, P.

Kithas, S. Frank, M. Artman, and J.M. Downey, The effect of allopurinol on myocardial infarct size in rat vs. rabbit. Fed. Proc. 44: 1480, 1985.

42. Miura, T. S. Yoshida, O. Iimura, D. Yellon and J. Downey. Diltiazem reduced infarct size but not ventricular arrhythmias in coronary embolized greyhounds. Fed. Proc. 44: 1478, 1985.

43. Downey, J.M. and D.N. Granger. Source of free radicals in the ischemic myocyte. Int. Union Physiol. Sciences, in press, 1986.

44. Downey, J.M., D.E. Chambers, T. Miura, D. Yellon, and D. Jones. Xanthine oxidase inhibition fails to limit infarct size in the rabbit. The Physiologist 29:133, 1986.

45. Eddy, L., J. Stewart, H. Jones, D. Yellon, J. McCord, and J. Downey. Xanthine oxidase is detected in ischemic rat heart but not human hearts. The Physiologist 29:166, 1986.

46. Downey, J., D. Chambers, T. Miura, D. Yellon, and D. Jones. Allopurinol fails to reduce infarct size in a xanthine oxidase deficient species. Circulation 74:372, 1986.

47. Molina, P. and J. Downey. Oxyradical-mediated injury occurs on reperfusion of ischemic rabbit heart. Fed. Proc. 46:831, 1987.

48. Shirato, C., T. Matsuki, and J. Downey. Neutrophil depletion does not affect coronary collateral flow. Fed. Proc. 46:831, 1987.

49. Downey, J.M. The source of injurious oxygen derived free radical in the ischemic heart differs between species. Proc. Canadian Fed. Biol. Soc. 1987,p. 72.

50. Matsuki, T., C. Shirato, M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Oxypurinol and allopurinol reduce infarct size in reperfused dog heart without pretreatment. The Physiologist 30:187, 1987.

51. Cohen, M.V. and J.M. Downey. Coronary venous flow during angioplasty is not equivalent to collateral flow. Circulation 76:IV-184, 1987.

52. Shirato, C., T. Matsuki, B. Twohig, and J.M. Downey. Neutrophil depletion does not augment coronary collateral flow. Circulation 76:IV-51, 1987.

53. Shirato, C., T. Miura, and J.M. Downey. Superoxide dismutase (single dose) delays rather than prevents necrosis in reperfused rabbit heart. FASEB Journal 2:A918, 1988.

54. Matsuki, T., M.V. Cohen, G. Holt, D.J. Hearse, and J.M. Downey. Chronic sympathectomy fails to augment coronary collateral flow or limit infarct size in rabbit. FASEB Journal 2:A946, 1988.

55. Downey, J.M. Species specificity of free radical source and the pharmacological consequences. FASEB Journal 2:A1477, 1988.

56. Downey, J.M., C. Shirato, T. Miura, and T. Toyofuku. Tetrazolium is unreliable as an index of drug induced salvage. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 20 (suppl V):s.70, 1988

56. Van Winkle, D.M., T. Matsuki, N. Gad, M.C. Jordan, and J.M. Downey. Unloading the ventricle during reperfusion fails to limit infarct size. FASEB Journal 3:A2688 1989

57. Jordan, M., B.E. Headlund and J.M. Downey. Hydroxyethyl starch-deferoxamine conjugate does not alter infarct size in rabbit heart. FASEB Journal 3:A2689, 1989

58. Downey,J.M., M. Jordan. Preconditioning limits infarct size in rabbits. Circulation 80:II-949, 1989

59. Downey, J.M, N.M. Gad, W.S. Chitwood, D.M. Van Winkle, A.W.H. Stanley. Hyperkalemic reperfusion restores function during reperfusion after short term ischemia. Circulation 80:II-950, 1989

60. Ooiwa, H, M. Jordan, A. Bylund-Felaneous, J.M. Downey. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase fails to limit infarct size in reperfused rabbit hearts. Circulation 80:II-1173, 1989

61. Omar, B., M. Jordan, J.M. Downey, J.M. McCord. Protection afforded by superoxide dismutase is dose-dependent in the in situ reperfused rabbit heart. Circulation 80:II-1174, 1989

62. Van Winkle, D.M., W.S. Chitwood, J.M. Downey. Transmural blood flow in rabbits is unaffected by low loading conditions but altered by cardiac arrest. Circulation 80:II-2187, 1989

63. Downey, J.M., D.M. Van Winkle, and J.D. Pollard. Preconditioning in rabbit hearts: Effect of varying number and duration of transient ischemic events. FASEB J.4:A852 1990

64. Van Winkle, D.M., A.N. Swafford and J.M. Downey. The subendocardial extravascular resistance in dogs is independent of ventricular lumenal pressure. FASEB J. 4:A946, 1990

65. Swafford, A.N., S.P. Striplin, J. Thornton, D.M. Van Winkle and J.M. Downey. Inhibition of protein synthesis does not block myocardial protection afforded by preconditioning. FASEB J. 4:A496, 1990

66. Downey, J.M., J.D. Thornton, G.S. Liu, and A.W.H. Stanley. Preconditioning does not involve synthesis of a protective protein. Circulation 82:III-271, 1990

67. Thornton, J.D., D.M. Van Winkle, and J.M. Downey. Preconditioning is mediated through adenosine receptors. Circulation 82:III-464, 1990

68. Yellon, D.M., E. Pasini, R. Ferrari, J.M. Downey, and D.S. Latchman. Whole body heat stress protects the isolated perfused rabbit heart. Circulation 82: III-463, 1990

69. Cohen, M.V., G.S. Liu, J.M. Downey. Preconditioning by a brief coronary occlusion preserves wall motion in ischemia/reperfusion. Circulation 82: III-271, 1990

70. Yellon, D.M., E. Iliodromitis, D.S. Latchman, D.M. Van Winkle, J.M. Downey, F.M. Williams, T.F. Williams. Failure of whole body heat shock to limit infarct size in reperfused rabbit heart. FASEB J. 5:3945, 1991

71. Liu, G.S., J. Thornton, D.M. Van Winkle, A.W.H. Stanley, R.A. Olsson, J.M. Downey. Preconditioning's protection is mediated by A1 adenosine receptors in the rabbit heart. FASEB J. 4:3948, 1991

72. Thornton, J., G.S. Liu, R.A. Olsson, J.M. Downey. Intravenous A1 selective adenosine agonists limit infarct size in the rabbit heart. FASEB J. 4:4256, 1991

73. Thornton, J., J.M. Downey. Gi Proteins are involved in preconditioning's protective effect. Circulation 84 (supp II): II-192, 1991

74. Turrens, J. F., J. Thornton, G.S. Liu, M.Barnard, S. Snyder, J.M. Downey. Preconditioning does not alter the heart's antioxidant defenses. Circulation 84 (supp II): II-193, 1991

75. Liu, G.S., W.Wilborn, A.W.H. Stanley, J.M. Downey. Neutrophil free reperfusion does not alter infarct size. Circulation 84 (supp II): II-281, 1991

76. Bunch, F.T., J. Thornton, J.M. Downey. Adenosine, an endogenous protectant against staccato ischemia. Circulation 84 (supp II): II-306, 1991

77. Van Winkle, D.M., J.D. Thornton, J.M. Downey. Cardioprotection from preconditioning is lost following prolonged reperfusion in rabbits. Circulation 84 (supp II):II-432, 1991

78. Thornton, J.D., J.M. Downey. Blockade of ATP-sensitive potassium channels does not block preconditioning in the rabbit heart. Circulation 84 (supp II): II-432, 1991

79. Kucukoglu, S., E. Illiodromitis, D. VanWinkle, J.M. Downey, M.S. Marber, R.J. Heads, D.M. Yellon. Preconditioning appears to be independent of stress protein synthesis. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 23 (supp V): S-73, 1991

80. Thornton, J.D., G.S. Liu, J.M. Downey. Adenosine mediates preconditioning. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 23 (supp V): S-34, 1991

81. Liu, G.S., J.M. Downey. Preconditioning protects against myocardial damage equally well with pyruvate or glucose containing substrate. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 24(Sup I):S93, 1992

82. Downey, J.M. Cardioprotective role of A1 receptor ligands. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 24(Sup I):S32, 1992

83. Walsh, R.S., Richards, S.C., Liu, G.S., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M. Role of adenosine receptor subtypes in preconditioning. JACC 21:116A, 1993

84. Tsuchida, A., Liu, G., Downey, J.M. Pretreatment with adenosine A1 selective agonist CCPA limits infarct size in a chronic rabbit model. Circulation (Suppl.) 86(4):I-23, 1992

85. Tsuchida, A., Liu, G., Mullane, K., Downey, J. Acadesine (AICAR) lowers the threshold for ischemic preconditioning in rabbits. Circulation (Suppl.) 86(4):I-25, 1992

86. Liu, G., Downey, J.M. Acetylcholine preconditions rabbit heart: further evidence for Gi protein coupling in preconditioning. Circulation (Suppl.) 86(4):I-174, 1992

87. Liu, Y., Downey, J.M. Blocking adenosine receptors of ATP sensitive K+ channels does not prevent preconditioning in rat heart. Circulation (Suppl.) 86(4):I-341, 1992

88. Thornton, J., Downey, J.M. Blocking adenosine receptors between preconditioning and prolonged ischemic prevents protection. Circulation (Suppl.) 86(4):I-343, 1992

89. Sterling, D., Thornton, J., Swafford, A., Stanley, A., Gottlieb, S., and Downey, J. Hyperbaric oxygen protects the reperfused heart. Circulation (Suppl.) 86(4):I-688, 1992

90. Thornton, J., Liu, Y., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J., Schaffer, S.W. Metabolic effects of diabetes mellitus protect ischemic myocardium from infarction. Circulation (Suppl.) 86(4):I-828, 1992

91. Liu, G.S., X. Yang, A. Tsuchida, S. Arnault, J. Thornton, D. Cope, M.V. Cohen and J.M. Downey Ischemic preconditioning can be reinstated in rabbit hearts. FASEB J, 7:A119, 1993

92. Tsuchida, A., R.A. Olsson and J.M. Downey. Cardioprotective effect of CCPA is lost after 72 hour infusion along with the ability to precondition. FASEB J, 7:A119, 1993

93. Yang, X., K. Snell, J.M. Downey and M.V. Cohen. Brief repetitive ischemia does not stimulate collateral growth in rabbits. FASEB J, 7:A320, 1993

94. Ytrehus, K., Y. Liu, J.M. Downey. Preconditioning protects the ischemic rabbit heart by protein kinase C activation. FASEB J, 7:A418, 1993

95. Thornton, J.D., J.F. Daly, M.V. Cohen and J.M. Downey. Catecholamines can protect ischemic myocardium but are not involved in ischemic preconditioning. FASEB J, 7:A418, 1993

96. Liu, Y., J.M. Downey. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin does not prevent preconditioning in rat heart. FASEB J, 7:A818, 1993

97. Brooks, G, R. Walsh, and J. Downey. Phosphorylation of 80k/MARCKS, a Specific Substrate of Protein Kinase C, Occurs After 5' Ischemia but Only in Preconditioned Hearts. Circulation 88:I-101, 1993

98. Cohen, M.V., X-M Yang, and J. Downey. Multiple Brief Episodes of Myocardial Ischemia Abolish Protection of Ischemic Preconditioning Seen After 1 Episode of Brief Ischemia. Circulation 88:I-138, 1993

99. Ytrehus, K., M.V. Cohen, J. Downey. Volume of Risk Zone Influences Infarct Size in Rabbits and May Account for Unexplained Variability in Infarction Studies Circulation 88:I-137, 1993

100. Tsuchida, A., R.S. Walsh, and J. Downey. Protection by ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel Opener Pinacidil Can Be Blocked With an Adenosine Receptor Antagonist. Circulation 88:I-632, 1993

101. Tsuchida, A., X-M Yang, K. Mullane, J. Downey. Acadesine Slows the Natural Decay of Preconditioning in Rabbits Circulation 88:I-633, 1993

102. Tsuchida, A., J. Ardell, M.V. Cohen, J. Downey, A. Heymann, B.A. Barron, M. Hamrick, C. Jones. Elimination of Myocardial Catecholamines With Ventricular Sympathectomy Fails to Limit Infarct Size in Canine Heart. Circulation 88:I-42, 1993

103. Walsh, R.S., Abd-Elfatah, A.S., Daly, J.J.F., Weschler, A.S.,Downey, J.M. Nucleoside transport inhibition prevents ischemic preconditioning. Circulation 88:I-432, 1993

104. Walsh, R.S., Abd-Elfatah, A.S., Daly, J.J.F., Weschler, A.S.,Downey, J.M. Selective blockade of nucleoside transport channels prevents preconditioning in rabbit myocardium. Surgical Forum 44: 234-236, 1993

105. Snell, K.S., A. Tsuchida, D.G.L. Van Wylen, J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. ATP-sensitive potassium channels fail to regulate cardiac interstitial fluid adenosine levels. FASEB J, 8:A560, 1994

106. Shen, Y-T, J.T. Fallon, J.M. Downey, S.F. Vatner. Superoxide dismutase fails to protect ischemic myocardium in conscious pigs. FASEB J, 8:A831, 1994

107. Yang, X.-M., M.V. Cohen, B. Burckhartt, A. Tsuchida, K. Mullane, J.M. Downey. Acadesine Extends Window of Protection for Preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol.. 26:CL, 1994.

108. Hashimi, W., J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. Loss of Preconditioning's Protection After Chronic Adenosine Exposure Is Not Related to PKC Downregulation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 26:CLII, 1994.

109. Liu, Y., A. Tsuchida, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Pretreatment with Angiotensin II Limits Infarction in Rabbit Hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 26:CLV, 1994. Times Cited: 113

110. Hashimi, W., J. Thornton, J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. Chronic adenosine A1-agonist exposure results in adenosine receptor rather than G protein downregulaton. Circulation 90:I-107, 1994

111. Ardell, J.L., X-M Yang, J.D. Thornton, A. Swafford, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Depletion of norepinephrine by chronic surgical sympathectomy does not block protection from ischemic preconditioning. Circulation 90:I-108, 1994

112. Liu, Y., M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Chelerythrine, a highly specific protein kinase C inhibitor blocks the anti-infarct effect of preconditioning in rabbit hearts. Circulation 90:I-207, 1994

113. Goto, M., Y. Liu, J.L. Ardell, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Bradykinin limits myocardial infarct size by protein kinase C activation and not by nitric oxide synthesis. Circulation 90:I-208, 1994

114. Liu, G-S, C.E. Ganote, J.M. Downey. Activation of adenosine receptors is required for protection from a direct opener of the KATP channel. Circulation 90:I-478, 1994

115. Ardell, J.L., X.-M. Yang, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Depletion of norepinephrine by reserpine increases the threshold for protection by ischemic preconditioning. FASEB Journal 9:A000, 1995

116. Liu, G.S., M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Preconditioning of rabbit myocytes depends on activation of phospholipase D. Circulation 92:I-135, 1995

117. Shattock, M.J., C.S. Lawson, D.J. Hearse, J.M. Downey. Monophasic action potential and ST segment changes are indicative of preconditioning only during early ischemia in the pig heart. Circulation 92:I-390, 1995

118. W. Hashimi, X.-M. Yang, C. Lambert, J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. Bradykinin may be the drug of choice for preconditioning the heart in the clinical setting. Circulation 92:I-456, 1995

119. Ytrehus, K., R.S. Walsh, S.C. Richards, J.M. Downey. Hydrogen peroxide as a protective agent during reperfusion of the isolated perfused rabbit heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol., 27:A-22, 1995

120. Armstrong, S.C., G. Liu, J. Downey, C. Ganote. K+ATP channels and preconditioning of rabbit cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-23, 1995

121. Yang, X.-M., G.F. Baxter, D.M. Yellon, J.R. Fletcher, J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. Second window of protection in conscious rabbits. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-27, 1995

122. Goto, M., A. Tsuchida, Y. Liu, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Transient inhibition of glucose uptake can protect rabbit heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-27, 1995

123. Liu, Y., G.A. Cordis, D.K. Das, J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. Protein kinase C may be activated by phospholipase D rather than C in ischemic preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-41, 1995

124. Bruton, J., M. Goto, J.M. Downey. Endogenous angiotensin II contributes to ischemic preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-43, 1995

125. Wang, P., K. Gallagher, J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. Endothelin-1 limits myocardial infarction through PKC activation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-44, 1995

126. Liu, G.S., M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Phospholipase D is involved in preconditioning of rabbit myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-44, 1995

127. Ardell, J.L., Y. Liu, X.-M. Yang, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Triggering of ischemic preconditioning involves bradykinin in in situ not in vitro rabbit hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-44, 1995

128. Cope, D.K., K. Impastato, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Adenosine receptors are necessary for protection of ischemic rabbit myocardium by halothane. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-46, 1995

129. Shattock, M.J., C.S. Lawson, D.J. Hearse, J.M. Downey. Do temporal electrophysiological and collateral flow changes mirrow preconditioning-induced infarct size limitation in the pig? J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-143, 1995

130. Cohen, M.V., X.-M. Yang, J.R. Fletcher, J.M. Downey. Less ST segment elevation during subsequent coronary occlusions indicates preconditioning in rabbit. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-144, 1995

131. Yang, X.-M., J.R. Fletcher, J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. The long ischemia is the critical time for kinase activity during ischemic preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 27:A-156, 1995

132. Liu, G.S., M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Rabbit ventricular myocytes can be preconditioned by activation of protein kinase C-coupled receptors. Journal of the American College of Cardiology (suppl.) 27:33A, 1996

133. Goto, M., M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Attenuated purine release from preconditioned rabbit myocardium is unrelated to protection. Journal of the American College of Cardiology (suppl.) 27:194A, 1996

134. Liu, G.S., M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Preconditioning of rabbit myocytes depends on activation of phospholipase D. Circulation (suppl.) 92:I-135, 1995

135. Shattock, M.J., C.S. Lawson, D.J. Hearse, J.M. Downey. Monphasic action potential and ST segment changes are indicative of preconditioning only during early ischemia in the pig heart. Circulation (suppl.) 92:I-390, 1995

136. Hashimi, W., X.-M. Yang, C. Lambert, J.M. Downey. Bradykinin may be the drug of choice for preconditioning the heart in the clinical setting. Circulation (suppl.) 92:I-456, 1995

137. Miki, T., H. Sato, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Opioid receptor contributes to ischemic preconditioning through protein kinase C activation in rabbits. Circulation (suppl.) 94:I-392, 1996

138. Baines, C., M. Goto, J.M. Downey. Oxygen radical release during ischemic preconditioning triggers protection in rabbit myocardium via activation of protein kinase C. Circulation (suppl.) 94:I-424, 1996

139. Weinbrenner, C., P. Wang, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Glycogen loss during preconditioning does not correlate with protection. Circulation (suppl.) 94:I-424, 1996

140. Baines, C., M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, blocks preconditioning in isolated rabbit hearts. Circulation (suppl.) 94:I-661, 1996

141. Liu,G.S., M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Rabbit ventricular myocytes can be preconditioned by activation of protein kinase C-coupled receptors. Journal of the American College of Cardiology (suppl.) 27:33A, 1996

142. Goto, M., M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Attenuated purine release from preconditioned rabbit myocardium is unrelated to protection. Journal of the American College of Cardiology (suppl.) 27:194A, 1996

143. Goto, M., C.P. Baines, J.M. Downey. Oxygen radical scavenger blocks protection by single but not repeated episodes of preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol.(suppl.) 28:A158, 1996

144. Baines, C.P., M. Goto, J.M. Downey. Oxygen radicals precondition rabbit heart via activation of protein kinase C. J Mol Cell Cardiol.(suppl.) 28:A158, 1996

145. Liu, G., S. Critz, M. Chujo, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Pinacidil but not nicorandil opens KATP channels in rabbit myocytes and mimics ischemic preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol. (suppl.) 28:A164, 1996

146. Prasad, R.V., P. Wang, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Inhibition of Na+-H+ exchange late in ischemia reduces infarct size. J Mol Cell Cardiol. (suppl.) 28:A167, 1996

147. Yang, X.-M., M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. The sustained ischemia is the critical time for kinase activity during ischemic preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol. (suppl.) 28:A186, 1996

148. Cope, D.K., W.K. Impastato, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Protection from volatile anesthesics is adenosine receptor-dependent in isolated ischemic rabbit heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. (suppl.) 28:A186, 1996

149. Miki, T., J.M. Downey. Opioid receptors participate in ischemic preconditioning in rabbits. J Mol Cell Cardiol. (suppl.) 28:A187, 1996

150. Weinbrenner, C., P. Wang, J.M. Downey. Glycogen loss during preconditioning does not correlate with protection. J Mol Cell Cardiol.(suppl.) 28:A188, 1996

151. Yang, X.-M., J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen. Diminution of ST segment deviation in sequential coronary occlusions is a true indicator of preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol. (suppl.) 28:A188, 1996

152. Liu, G.S., C.P. Baines, M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in ischemic preconditioning in rabbit heart. Circulation (suppl.) 96(8):I-71, 1997

153. Weinbrenner, C., J.M. Downey, and M.V. Cohen. Cyclosporine a preconditions rabbit heart when administered before as well as after onset of ischemia. Circulation (suppl.) 96(8):I-252, 1997

154. Baines, C.P., L. Wang, J.M. Downey, and M.V. Cohen. Cardioprotection by insulin is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase but not protein kinase C. Circulation (suppl.) 96(8):I-573, 1997

155. Weinbrenner, C., C.P. Baines, R.E. Honkanen, M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Ischemic preconditioning in the rabbit heart does not protect by inhibiting protein phosphatase 1 or 2A. Circulation (suppl.) 96(8):I-574, 1997

156. Miki, T., M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Hypothermia's cardioprotective effect is additive to that of ischemic preconditioning. Circulation (suppl.) 96(8): I-687, 1997

157. Cope, D.K., W.K. Impastato, M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Halothane administered before or during ischemia reduces infarction. J Mole & Cell Cardiol. 29(6):A-170, 1997

158. Liu, G.S., R. Honkanen, M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A protects rabbit cardiomyocytes. J Mole & Cell Cardiol. 29(6):A-198, 1997

159. Liu, G.S., M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Protection of cardiomyocytes by mild cooling plus preconditioning is additive. J Mole & Cell Cardiol. 29(6):A-198, 1997

160. Weinbrenner, C., M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase correlates with the protection of ischemic preconditioning. J Mole & Cell Cardiol. 29(6):A-203, 1997

161. Baines, C.P., R.E. Honkanen, M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Fostriecin limits infarction even when infused after the onset of ishemia. J Mole & Cell Cardiol 29(6):A-204, 1997

162. Miki, T., M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Mild hypothermia reduces infarct size in the beating rabbit heart. J Mole & Cell Cardiol. 29(6):A-210, 1997

163. Armstrong, S., L.C. Shivell, R. Kao, J. Downey and C. Ganote. Pig cardiomyocytes precondition in vitro: role for KATPchannels and metabolic rate. J Mole & Cell Cardiol. 29(6):A-227, 1997

164. Liu, G.S., D. Mochly-Rosen, M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Protein kinase C-, not, is responsible for the protection of preconditioning in rabbit cardiomyocytes. Circulation 98(17):I-71, 1998

165. Fan, T.-H.M., J. Xu, C.P. Baines, and J.M. Downey. Suppression of apoptosis by ischemic preconditioning in the rabbit myocardium. Circulation 98(17):I-261, 1998

166. Baines, C.P., G.S. Liu, M. Birincioglu, M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Diazoxide, a mitochondrial KATP-channel opener, is cardioprotective in ischemic rabbit myocardium. Circulation 98(17):I-343, 1998

167. Cohen, M.V., X.-M. Yang, and J.M. Downey. Ischemic preconditioning improves post-ischemic myocardial function in conscious rabbits. Circulation 98(17):I-485, 1998

168. Liu, G.S., M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Hypo-osmotic stress protects rabbit cardiomyocytes. Circulation 98(17):I-585, 1998

169. Liu, G.S., C. Baines, M. Birincioglu, M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. KATP channel is involved in the protection from an activator of p38 MAP kinase in rabbit hearts. Circulation 98(17):I-585, 1998

170. Kim, S.O., T.S. Pain, S.L. Pelech, M.V. Cohen, S. Katz, and J.M. Downey. Activation of MAPKAP kinase 2 during ischemia in preconditioned rabbit heart. Circulation 98(17):I-585, 1998

171.Krenz, M., C.P. Baines, X.M.Yang, M.V.Cohen and J.M.Downey. Acute ethanol exposure does not limit infarct size in in situ rabbit hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 31:A10, 1999.

172. Baines, C.P., M.V. Cohen and J.M. Downey. Acute ethanol exposure limits infarct size in isolated rabbit hearts by a preconditioning-like mechanism. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 31:A16 1999.

173. Pain, T., M.V. Cohen, and J.M. Downey. Mitochondrial KATP channels may play a role in preconditioning's memory. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 31:A33, 1999.

174. Fan, T.M. J.Xu, T. Pain, M.V. Cohen, J.M. Downey. Ischemic preconditioning inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome C release in ischemic rabbit myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 31:A33, 1999.

175. Nakano, A., S.O. Kim, S.L. Pelech, J.M. Downey, M.V. Cohen, S. D. Critz. Activation of MAPKAPK2 is involved in preconditioned rabbit heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 31:A43, 1999.

176. Liu, G.S., Cohen, M.V., Mochly-Rosen, D., and Downey, J.M.: Protection from Non-Selective PKC Activation Can Be Aborted by Blockade of Only PKC-e. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 31: A17, 1999.

177. Liu, G.S., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthesis Does Not Affect Ischemic Preconditioning in Isolated, Perfused Rabbit Hearts. Circulation 100: I-243, 1999.

 178. Nakano, A., Baines, C.P., Kim, S.O., Pelech, S.L., Pain, T.S., Downey, J.M., Cohen, M.V., and Critz, S.D.: MAPKAPK2, but Not JNK, Is Activated During Ischemia in Preconditioned Hearts. Circulation 100: I-325, 1999.

179. Pain, T.S., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: The Mitochondrial KATP Channel May Be a Trigger Rather Than the End-effector of Preconditioning's Anti-infarct Effect. Circulation 100: I-342, 1999.

180. Yang, X.-M., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: HMR 1883, a Surface KATP Channel Antagonist, Blocks Protection From Diazoxide: Diazoxide's Specificity for Mitochondrial KATP Is Questionable. Circulation 100: I-342, 1999.

181. Fan, T.-H.M., Xu, J., Pain, T.S., Krenz, M., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Diazoxide Inhibits Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Release in Ischemic Rabbit Myocardium. Circulation 100: I-630, 1999.

182. Krenz, M., Heusch, G., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Inhibition of JAK-2 Does Not Block Ischemic Preconditioning in Rats. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 32: A19, 2000.

183. Nakano, A., Liu, G.S., Heusch, G., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Exogenous, But Not Endogenous, Nitric Oxide Triggers Preconditioning of the Isolated Rabbit Heart by Formation of Free Radicals. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 32: A24, 2000.

184. Krenz, M., Xu, Z., Baines, C.P., Heusch, G., Cohen, M.V. and Downey, J.M.: Acute Ethanol Exposure Is Protective Both In Vitro and In Situ, But Only if Washed Out Before Ischemia. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 32: A45, 2000.

185. Yang, X.-M., Pain, T., Heusch, G., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Diazoxide Protects the Heart by Release of Free Radicals. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 32: A49, 2000.

186. Xu, Z., Cohen, M.V., Heusch, G., and Downey, J.M.: AMP 579 Started During Ischemia Limits Infarct Size in Rabbit Hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 32: A55, 2000.

187. Krenz, M., Wimpee, H., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M., and Benoit, J.N.: Opening of Mitochondrial ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels Generates Reactive Oxygen Species in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. FASEB J 15: A488, 2001.

188. Oldenburg, O., Krenz, M., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M., and Benoit, J.N.: Mitochondrial K+ Influx Per Se Causes Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 33: A87, 2001.

189. Xu, Z., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Protective Effect of AMP 579 Depends on Drug's Timing of Administration and Can Be Added to That of Ischemic Preconditioning. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 33: A132, 2001.

190. Yang, X.-M., Krenz, M., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Protective and Anti-Protective Effects of Acute Ethanol Exposure Have Similar Thresholds in Isolated Rabbit Hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 33: A133, 2001.

191. Critz, S.D., Yue, Y., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Menadione Preconditions Rat Heart by Stimulating Production of Cardiac Mitochondrial Free Radicals Which Activate PKC and P38 MAPK. Circulation 104: II-101, 2001.

192. Xu, Z., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Adenosine Does Not Duplicate the Anti-Infarct Effect of AMP 579 at Reperfusion Although the Two Agents Have the Same Receptors. Circulation 104: II-149, 2001.

193. Xu, Z., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M., Vanden Hoek, T.L., and Yao, Z.: Differential Effects of AMP 579 and Adenosine on Free Radical Burst at Reoxygenation in Isolated Chick Cardiomyocytes Subjected to Simulated Ischemia. Circulation 104: II-149, 2001.

194. Oldenburg, O., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J. M., and Benoit, J.N.: Acetylcholine Leads to Free Radical Production Dependent on KATP Channels, Gi Proteins, Phosphatidylinositol 3-, and Tyrosine Kinases. FASEB Journal 16: A452, 2002.

195. Qin, Q., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Acetylcholine But Not Adenosine Triggers Preconditioning Through PI3-Kinase and a Tyrosine Kinase. FASEB Journal 16: A855, 2002.

196. Krieg, T., Qin, Q., Critz, S.D., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Acetylcholine Activates Akt in Myocardium Confirming a Role for Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase in Acetylcholine's Cardioprotection. FASEB Journal 16: A856, 2002.

197. Oldenburg, O., Mochly-Rosen, D., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Acetylcholine-Induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in A7r5 Cells is Dependent on Protein Kinase C. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 34: A30, 2002.

198. Qin, Q., Oldenburg, O., Cohen, M.V., and Downey J.M.: The Potassium Ionophore Valinomycin Mimics Preconditioning and Generates Reactive Oxygen Species. Presented International Society for Heart Research, July, 2002. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 34: A33, 2002.

199. Krieg, T., Qin, Q., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Acetylcholine Activates Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase via Transactivation of the EGF Receptor. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 34: A36, 2002.

200. Yang, X.-M., Krieg, T., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: NECA Limits Infarction in Rabbit Heart by Activating Adenosine A2 Receptor and PI3-Kinase. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 34: A36, 2002.

201. Krieg, T., Qin, Q., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Acetylcholine and Adenosine Activate Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Through Transactivation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in a Src-Dependent Manner. Circulation 106: II-7, 2002.

202. Oldenburg, O., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M.: Acetylcholine-induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Adult Rabbit Myocytes Is Dependent on Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Activation and Mitochondrial KATP Channel Opening. Circulation 106: II-230, 2002.

203. Qin, Q., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Acetylcholine But Not Adenosine Triggers Preconditioning by a Pathway Involving Src and PI3 Kinases. Circulation 106: II-314, 2002.

204. Oldenburg, O., Cohen M. V., Downey J. M. Acetylcholine-induced production of reactive oxygen species in ventricular myocytes is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3- and Src-kinase activation, and mitochondrial KATP channel opening. Z Kardiol 92 (Suppl. I): 132, 2003

205. Oldenburg, O., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Acetylcholine-Induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Ventricular Myocytes Is Dependent on Phosphatidylinositol 3- and Src-Kinase Activation, and Mitochondrial KATP Channel Opening. Zeitshrift für Kardiologie 92 (Suppl I): 132, 2003.

206. Oldenburg, O., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Bradykinin Leads to Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiomyocytes by Activation of B2-Receptor and Opening of Mitochondrial KATP Channels via PKG. European Journal of Heart Failure Supplements 2: 44, 2003.

207. Krieg, T., Yang, X.-M., Downey, J., and Cohen, M.V.: Bradykinin and NECA But Not Acetylcholine at Reperfusion Limit Infarction in Rabbit Heart Through Activation of PI3-kinase. European Journal of Heart Failure Supplements 2: 46, 2003.

208. Cohen, M.V.: Protecting the Ischemic Heart at Reperfusion. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 35: A-19, 2003.

209. Pemberton, K., Zhang, S.-J., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: The Conopeptide CGX-1051 Administered at Reperfusion Limits Infarct Size with No Hemodyanmic Effects. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 35: A-28, 2003.

210. Qin, Q., Yang, X.-M., Cohen, M.V., Critz, S.D., and Downey, J.M.: Bradykinin Protects Rabbit Hearts by a NO- and CGMP-Dependent Pathway. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 35: A-29, 2003.

211. Krieg, T., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Mitochondrial ROS Generation Following Acetylcholine in Cardiomyocytes Invovles EGF Receptor Transactivation and Metalloproteinase Cleavage of proHB-EGF. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 35: A-46, 2003.

212. Qian, X., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M., and Critz, S.D.: Cyclic GMP Triggers p38 MAPK Activation in H9c2 Cells and Rabbit Cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol.35: A-49, 2003.

213. Yang, X.-M., Oldenburg, O., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Ischemic Preconditioning, But Not AT1 Blockade, Attenuates Collagen Deposition and Improves Regional Myocardial Function Following Ischemia in Rabbit Hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 35: A-49, 2003.

214. Yang, X.M., Downey J.M., Cohen M.V., Multiple brief coronary occlusions during reperfusion protect rabbit hearts by activation of ERK and production of nitric oxide. Circulation 108:IV-158, 2003

215. Krieg, T., Cui, L., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Acetylcholine-induced EGF Receptor Transactivation Requires Metalloproteinase Cleavage of pro-HB-EGF to Generate Mitochondrial ROS. Presented American Heart Association, November 2003. Circulation 108: IV-93, 2003.

216. Krieg, T., Qin, Q., Alexeyev, M.F., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M. Acetylcholine preconditions by activating Akt and NOS to generate ROS.J Mol Cell Cardiol 36:741, 2004

217. Yang, X.-M., Cui, L., Krieg, T., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Postconditioning Protects Isolated Hearts Through PI3K Signaling. Presented International Society for Heart Research, May, 2004. J Mol and Cell Cardiol 36: 613, 2004.

218. Garlid, K.D., Costa, A.D., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M., and Critz, S.D.: Cyclic GMP and PKG Activate mito KATP Channels in Isolated Mitochondria. Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15 (Suppl 1): S5, 2004.  

219. Downey, J.M. The cellular mechanisms of ischeamic and pharmacological preconditioning.
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa  (Suppl 1):S3, 2004.

220. Yang, X.-M., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Postconditioning’s Protection Is Not Dependent on Circulating Blood Factors or Cells but Requires PI3-kinase and Guanylyl Cyclase Activation. Circulation 110: III-168, 2004.

221. Philipp, S., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Postconditioning Must Be Initiated in Less Than 1 Minute Following Reperfusion and Is Dependent on Adenosine Receptors and PI3-Kinase. Circulation 110: III-168, 2004 

222. Philipp, S., Yang, X.-M., Willenbrock, R., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Postconditioning Must Be Initiated in Less Than 1 Minute Following Reperfusion and Is Dependent on Adenosine 2b Receptors and PI3-kinase.  Zeitshrift für Kardiologie 94 (Suppl 1):V803, 2005.

223. Solenkova, N., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: PI3 Kinase Supports the Preconditioned Heart Through a Critical Convalescent Period. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 38: 848, 2005.

224. Solenkova, N., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Ischemic Preconditioning Protects the Heart Through Adenosine Receptor Activation During Reperfusion. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 38: 848, 2005.           

225. Philipp, S., Cui, L., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitors Protect the Heart by Inducing Mitochondrial ROS Generation via NO, cGMP, PKG, and mitoKATP. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 38: 857, 2005.

226. Krahn, T., Albrecht, B., Rosentreter, U., Cohen, M.V., Cui, L., and Downey, J.M.: Adenosine A2b Receptor Agonist Mimics Preconditioning: Characterization of a Selective Adenosine A2b Receptor Agonist in a Rabbit Infarct Model. 2006 Ferrarra Adenosine Symposium.

 

227. Yang, X.-M., Philipp, S., Davis, A., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: PMA Administered Just Before Reperfusion Salvages Ischemic Myocardium by an Adenosine A2b-Dependent Mechanism.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 40: 869, 2006.

 

228. Kuno, A., Critz, S.D., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Nicorandil Opens Mitochondrial KATP Channels Both Directly and Through a NO-PKG-Dependent Pathway. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 40: 882, 2006.

 

229. Philipp, S., Krieg, T., Cui, L., Critz, S.D., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: DADLE But Not Bradykinin Activates Src and PI3-Kinase Through the EGF Receptor. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 40: 892-893, 2006.

 

230. Tissier, R., Parker, J.C., Hamanaka, K., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Total Liquid Ventilation Rapidly Cools the Heart to Protect It from Infarction. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 40: 906, 2006.

 

231. Philipp, S., Krieg, T., Cui, L., Critz, S.D., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: DADLE But Not Bradykinin Activates Src and PI3-Kinase Through the EGF Receptor. European Heart Journal 27 (Suppl 1):000, 2006.

232. Albrecht B, Krahn T, Philipp S, Rosentreter U, Cohen M, and Downey J.  Selective A2b receptor activation mimics postconditioning in a rabbit infarct model. Circulation 114 (Suppl II), II-14-II-15. 2006.

233. Couvreur, N., Ghaleh, B., Bruneval, P., Dubois-Randé, J.-L., Parker, J.C., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M., Berdeaux, A., and Tissier, R.: Ultrafast cooling initiated by a short and safe temperature-controlled liquid ventilation abolishes post-ischemic myocardial infarction and contractile dysfunction in chronically instrumented rabbits. Circulation 116 (Suppl II): II-66-II-67, 2007.

234. Krieg, T., Richter, H., Kuno, A., Förster, K., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M., and Felix, S.B.: Cardioprotection from GSK-3β inhibition requires activation of PI-3 kinase and Src but not Akt, PKC, or ERK.  Circulation 116 (Suppl II): II-164, 2007.

235. Davis, A., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Brief Exposure to Intracoronary Bradykinin at Reperfusion Limits Infarct Size in Isolated Rabbit Hearts by a Mechanism that Involves Both Free Radical Production and PKC. FASEB Journal 22: 000, 2008.

236. Dost, T., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Redox Signaling Triggers Protection During the Reperfusion Rather Than the Ischemic Phase of Preconditioning. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 44: 000, 2008.

237. Yang, X.-M., Liu, Y., Liu, Y., Tandon, N., Kambayashi, J., Downey, J.M., and Cohen, M.V.: Preconditioning in cynomolgus monkey heart protects against both ischemic and reperfusion injury. Circulation 118 (Suppl 2): S401, 2008.

238. Xin, W., Liu, Y., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M., and Rich, T.C.: Regulation of basal cAMP levels in rabbit cardiomyocytes. FASEB Journal 23: 582.2, 2009.

239. Liu, Y., Yang, X.-M., Walker, S., Yang, X., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: AMP579 binds to adenosine A2b receptors thus resolving longstanding mystery of its cardioprotective signaling. FASEB Journal 23: 793.24, 2009.

240. Xin, W., Cohen, M.V., Rich, T.C., and Downey, J.M.: Which preconditioning-associated G protein-coupled receptors are expressed on the sarcolemma? FASEB Journal 23: 793.25, 2009.

241. Kuno, A., Walker, S., Dost, T., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Adenosine A2b receptors unexpectedly activate cardioprotective kinases through Gi rather than Gs. FASEB Journal 23: 1026.4, 2009.

242. Krieg T, Liu Y, Rütz T,Methner C, Yang X-M, Felix SB, and Downey JM. BAY 58-2667, NO-independent guanylyl cyclase activator, pharmacologically post-conditions rabbit and rat hearts. BMC Pharmacology, 9(Suppl 1):42, 2009

243. Downey JM, Liu Y, and Xin W. The role of cGMP and PKG in cardioprotection.   BMC Pharmacology, 9 (Suppl 1):4, 2009

244. Yang, X., Xin, W., Cohen, M.V., Rich, T., and Downey, J.M.: Suppressed Radical Production by Intracellular A2b Adenosine Receptors in Rabbit Cardiomyocytes.  Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 48 (Suppl): S34, 2010.

245. Krieg, T., Förster, K., Xu, Z., Rüdebusch, J., Cuello, F., Cohen, M.V., and Downey, J.M.: Cardioprotective A2b Adenosine Receptors Are Localized to Mitochondria Rather Than the Sarcolemma.  Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 48 (Suppl): S118, 2010.

246. Methner, C., Cohen, M.V., Downey, J.M., and Krieg, T.: Bother A2a and A2b Adenosine Receptors Are Necessary to Reduce Infarct Size at Reperfusion in Mouse Hearts.  Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 48 (Suppl): S159-S160, 2010.

247. Cui L., Yang X.-M., Yang X., Cohen M.V., Downey J.M. Phosphotase inhibitor, cantharidin, protects the ischemic heart during the index ischemia through a phospho-ERK1/2-dependent mechanism. J Mol Cell Cardiol (in Press) 2011

248. Yang X., Liu Y., Yang X-M, Hu F., Cui L., Cohen M.V., Downey J.M. Cardioprotection from Mild Hypothermia During Ischemia Depends on ERK Activity. J Mol Cell Cardiol (in Press) 2011 

249. Yang X.M., Liu Y., Cui L., Yang X, Liu Y, Tandon N, Kambayashi J., Downey J.M. and Cohen M.V. Blocking platelet activation in rabbits or monkeys protects against infarction by postconditioning-like signalling. . J Mol Cell Cardiol (in Press) 2011

250. Yang XM, Liu Y, Cui L, Yang X, Liu Y, Tandon N, Kambayash, Downey JM, Cohen MV. Does Blockade of Platelet Aggregation after Stenting for STEMI Protect Against Reperfusion Injury? Circulation 2011 124 A13478

251. Michael V Cohen, Xi-Ming Yang, Lin Cui, Glenn L Wilson, Mikhail Alexeyev, Mark N Gillespie, and James M Downey. Is Mitochondrial DNA Fragmentation a Major Contributor to Necrosis in Myocardial Infarction?
Circulation. 2014;130:A12246