Sample —
the set of elements taken from a larger population; a subset of
cases drawn from a population

Sampling —
the process of drawing a sample from a population

Sampling error
— the difference between a sample statistic and a population
parameter

Sampling frame
— a list of all the elements in a population

Sampling with
replacement — it is possible for elements to be selected
more than once

Sampling without
replacement — it is not possible for elements to be selected
more than once

Sampling interval
— the population size divided by the desired sample size;
it is symbolized by “k”

Sampling distribution
— the theoretical probability distribution of the values
of a statistic that results when all possible random samples of
a particular size are drawn from a population

Sampling error
— the difference between a sample statistic and the corresponding
population parameter

Sampling distribution
of the mean — the theoretical probability distribution of
the means of all possible random samples of a particular size
drawn from a population

Scatterplot
— a graph used to depict the relationship between two quantitative
variables

Science —
an approach for the generation of knowledge

Secondary
data — existing data originally collected or left behind
at an earlier time by a different person for a different purpose

Secondary
source — a source that was created from primary sources,
secondary sources, or some combination of the two

Segmenting
— dividing data into meaningful analytical units

Selection-history
effect — occurs when an event occurring between the pretest
and posttest differentially affects the different comparison groups

Selection-instrumentation
effect — may exist if the nature of the dependent variable
or the way it is measured varies across the nonequivalent groups

Selection-maturation
effect — occurs when different comparison groups experience
a different rate of change on a maturation variable

Selection-regression
effect — may exist if the two groups are from different
populations such as the experimental treatment group being from
a population of individuals with low reading scores and the comparison
group being from a population of individuals with high reading
scores

Selective
coding — the final stage in grounded theory data analysis

Self-report
V a test-taking method in which the participants check or rate
the degree to which various characteristics are descriptive of
themselves

Semantic differential
— a scaling technique in which participants rate a series
of objects or concepts

Sequencing
effects — biasing effects that can occur when each participant
must participate in each experimental treatment condition

Shared beliefs
— the specific cultural conventions or statements that people
who share a culture hold to be true or false

Shared values
— the culturally defined standards about what is good or
bad or desirable or undesirable

Significance
level — the cutoff the researcher uses to decide when to
reject the null hypothesis; also called the alpha level

Significance
testing — a commonly used synonym for hypothesis testing;
NOTE: in significance or hypothesis testing, the researcher sets
the significance (alpha) level, analyzes the data to obtain the
probability value, and then the researcher compares the empirical
probability value with the preset significance level to determine
whether the finding is statistically significant

Simple random
sample — a sample drawn by a procedure where every member
of the population has an equal chance of being selected

Simple cases
— when there is only one independent variable and one dependent
variable

Simple case
of causal-comparative research — when there is one categorical
independent variable and one quantitative dependent variable

Simple case
of correlational research — when there is one quantitative
independent variable and one quantitative dependent variable

Simple random
sampling — the term usually used for sampling without replacement

Simple regression
— regression based on one dependent variable and one independent
variable

Single-case
experimental designs — designs that use a single participant
to investigate the effect of an experimental treatment condition

Skewed —
not symmetrical

Snowball sampling
— each research participant is asked to identify other potential
research participants

Social desirability
response set — the tendency to provide answers that are
socially desirable

Sourcing –
information that identifies the source or attribution of the document

Spearman-Brown
formula — a statistical formula used for correcting the
split-half reliability coefficient (because of the shortened test
length created by splitting the full length test into two equivalent
halves)

Special case
of the general linear model — one of the “children”
of a broader statistical procedure known as the general linear
model (GLM)

Split-half
reliability — a measure of the consistency of the scores
obtained from two equivalent halves of the same test

Spurious relationship
— when the relationship between two variables is due to
one or more third variables

Standard deviation
— the square root of the variance

Standard error
— the standard deviation of a sampling distribution

Standard scores
— scores that have been converted from one scale to another
to have a particular mean and standard deviation

Standardization
— presenting the same stimulus to all participants

Standardized
open-ended interview — a set of open-ended questions are
asked in a specific order and exactly as worded

Starting point
— a randomly selected number between one and k

States —
distinguishable, but less enduring ways in which individuals vary

Statistic
— a numerical characteristic of a sample

Statistical
conclusion validity — the ability to infer that the independent
and dependent variables are related and the strength of that relationship

Statistically
significant — a research finding is probably not attributable
to chance; it’s the claim made when the evidence suggests
an observed result was probably not just due to chance (i.e.,
there is a real relationship present)

Stratification
variable — the variable on which the population is divided

Stratified
sampling — dividing the population into mutually exclusive
groups and then selecting a random sample from each group

Structural
equation modeling — see causal modeling

Subculture
— a culture embedded within a larger culture

Summated rating
scale — a multi-item scale that has the responses for each
person summed into a single score

Summative
evaluation — evaluation focused on determining the overall
effectiveness and usefulness of the evaluation object

Survey research
— a term applied to nonexperimental research based on questionnaires
or interviews

Synthesis
– the selection, organization, and analysis of the materials
collected

Systematic
error — an error that is present every time an instrument
is used

Systematic
sample — a sample obtained by determining the sampling interval,
selecting a random starting point between 1 and k, and then selecting
every kth element