Educational Research Homepage Vita Courses Textbook BSET College of Education Universoty of South Alabama

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Introduction to Educational Research

Table 1.2: Summary of General Kinds of Research.
Table 1.3: Summary of Common Assumptions Made by Educational Researchers.
Table 1.4: How to Evaluate the Quality of a Theory or Explanation.
Figure 1.1: The Research Wheel.

Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research

Table 2.1: Emphases of Quantitative, Mixed, and Qualitative Research.
Table 2.2: Common Types of Variables Classified by Level of Measurement and by Role of Variable.
Table 2.3: Examples of Quantitative and Categorical Variables.
Figure 2.2: Correlations of Different Strengths and Directions.
Figure 2.3: Research Typology.


Developing Research Questions and Proposal Preparation

Table 3.1: Ways in Which Prior Studies Can Provide Ideas for New Studies.
Table 3.6: Evaluating Internet Resources.
Table 3.7: Writing Quantitative Research Questions.
Figure 3.1: Flowchart of the Development of a Research Idea.
Figure of sections of a research proposal.

Research Ethics

Table 4.1: Information to Include in a Consent Form.
Table 4.2: Information to Be Included in a Research Protocol.
Figure 4.1: Utilitarian Approach to Judging the Ethical Acceptability of a Research Study.
Exhibit 4.3: Consent Form.
Exhibit 4.4: Example of a Parental Consent to Participate in Research for Use with Minors.
Exhibit 4.5: Example of a Research Protocol Submitted to the IRB.
Overhead of Six Major Ethical Guidelines.


Standardized Measurement and Assessment

Table 5.1: Scales of Measurement.
Table 5.4: Summary of Methods for Computing Reliability.
Table 5.6: Summary of Methods for Obtaining Validity Evidence.
Table 5.7: Sources of Information about Tests and Test Reviews.
Table 5.8: Internet Sources Helpful in Locating Tests and Other Measurement Instruments.

Methods of Data Collection

Table 6.1: Type of Question Matrix, with Examples.
Table 6.2: Principles of Questionnaire Construction.
Table 6.4: Tips for Conducting an Effective Interview.
Table 6.5: Patton’s Classification of Types of Interviews.
Table 6.6: Tips for Conducting Fieldwork and Qualitative Observation.
Figure 6.1: The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.
Exhibit 6.1: Examples of Response Categories for Rating Scales.
Exhibit 6.3: Example of a Section of a Telephone Interview.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Tests.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Questionnaires.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Interviews.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Focus Groups.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Observational Data.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Secondary or Existing Data.


Figure 7.1: Table of Random Numbers.
Figure 7.2: A Sampling Frame With Information on Gender and Age Included.
Figure 7.5: Sample Sizes for various Populations of Size 10 to 500 Million.
Types of Sampling in Quantitative Research.
Types of Sampling in Qualitative Research.

Validity of Research Results

Table 8.2: Strategies Used to Promote Qualitative Research Validity.
Figure 8.1: One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design.
Figure 8.2: Two-Group Design.
Overhead of Types of Validity in Qualitative Research.
Summary of the Four Major Types of Validity.
Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity.
Threats to Construct Validity.
Table 9.1: Summary of the Threats to Internal Validity of Weak Experimental Designs.
Table 9.2: Summary of the Threats to Internal Validity That Are Controlled by the Strong Experimental Designs.
Table 11.1: The Three Necessary Conditions for Causation.


Experimental Research

Table 9.1: Summary of the Threats to Internal Validity of Weak Experimental Designs.
Table 9.2: Summary of the Threats to Internal Validity That Are Controlled by the Strong Experimental Designs.
Figure 9.1: Three Different Ways of Manipulating the Independent Variable.
Overheads of Control Techniques Used in Experimental Research: Figure 9.2, Figure 9.3, Figure 9.4, and Figure 9.5.
Figure 9.15: An Interaction Effect: Disordinal, Ordinal
Overhead of Elements Involved in Developing a Research Design.

Quasi-Experimental and Single-Case Designs

Figure 10.1: Nonequivalent Comparison-Group Design.
Figure 10.2: Design of Brown, Pressley, Van Meter, and Schunder Study.
Figure 10.4: Interrupted Time-Series Design.
Figure 10.5: Percentage of Students Who Are On-Task at 10 Minutes and 40 Minutes into the Class Period.
Figure 10.6: Possible Pattern of Behavior of a Time-Series Variable.
Figure 10.7: Regression-Discontinuity Design.
Figure 10.8: Regression Discontinuity Experiment With No Treatment Effects.
Figure 10.9: Regression Discontinuity Experiment With an Effective Treatment.
Figure 10.10: A-B-A Time-Series Design.
Figure 10.11: Rate of Tom’s Disruptive Behaviors During Baseline and Intervention.
Figure 10.14: The Correct Reading Rates During Baseline and Assisted Reading for Each Participant.
Figure 10.16: Number of Math Problems Solved in a Changing-Criterion Design.

Nonexperimental Quantitative Research

Table 11.1: The Three Necessary Conditions for Causation.
Table 11.2: Examples of Spurious Relationships.
Table 11.3: Types of Research Obtained by Crossing Research Objective and Time Dimension.
Figure 11.2: Relationship Between Amount of Fire Damage and Number of Trucks Responding Before and After Controlling for Size of Fire.
Figure 11.3: Depiction of Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal, and Retrospective Research Designs.
Figure 11.4: A Causal Model of Student Achievement.

Qualitative Research

Table 12.1: Twelve Major Characteristics of Qualitative Research.
Table 12.2: Characteristics of Four Qualitative Research Approaches.
List of Terms by Type of Qualitative Research. (to supplement Table 12.2).
Table 12.3 Selected Emic Terms Used by High School Students.

Historical Research

Reasons for Conducting Historical Research.
Steps in the Process of Historical Research.
Evaluation of Historical Sources.

Mixed Method and Mixed Model Research

Figure 14.1: The Research Continuum.
Figure 14.2: Mono method and mixed model designs.
Figure 14.3: Mixed Method Design Matrix.
Figure 14.4: Important Steps in a Mixed Research Study.
Table 14.1: Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantitative Research.
Table 14.2: Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Research.
Table 14.3: Strengths and Weaknesses of Mixed Research.


Descriptive Statistics

Table 15.1: Hypothetical Set of Data for Twenty-Five Recent College Graduates.
Table 15.2: Frequency Distribution of Starting Salary.
Table 15.3: Grouped Frequency Distribution of Starting Salary.
Table 15.4: Calculating the Variance and Standard Deviation.
Figure 15.1: Major Divisions in the Field of Statistics.
Figure 15.2: A Bar Graph of College Major.
Figure 15.3: A Histogram of Starting Salaries.
Figure 15.4: A Line Graph of Grade Point Average.
Figure 15.5: A Scatterplot of Starting Salary by Grade Point Average.
Figure 15.8: Percentile Ranks and Standard Scores in Relation to the Normal Curve.

Inferential Statistics

Table 16.1: A List of Symbols Used for Statistics and Parameters.
Table 16.2: Examples of Null and Alternative Hypotheses in Inferential Statistics.
Table 16.3: Steps in Hypothesis Testing.
Table 16.5: The Four Possible Outcomes in Hypothesis Testing.
Figure 16.2: A Sampling Distribution of the Mean and an Illustration of 95% Confidence Intervals for Twenty Possible Samples.

Data Analysis in Qualitative Research

Table 17.2: Unordered List of Responses to the Open-Ended Question, What are some specific problems needing action in your organization?
Table 17.3: Categorization of Responses to the Open-Ended Question, What are some specific problems needing action in your organization?
Table 17.6: Spradley’s Universal Semantic Relationships.
Table 17.7: Categories Ordered by Time.
Figure 17.1: Data Analysis in Qualitative Research.
Figure 17.2: Hierarchical Categorization of Counselors’ Construal of Success in the Initial Session.
Figure 17.3: Patton’s Typology of Teacher Roles in Dealing with High School Dropouts.
Figure 17.4: Network Diagram for Job Mobility.
Websites for Qualitative Data Analysis Programs.


Preparation of the Research Report

Burke’s Writing Tips.
Seven Major Parts to a Research Paper.