(Donít forget that
the companion website also has multiple choice questions for each chapter that
you can take for practice. You will find them here: http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/dr_johnson/2mcq.htm)
position does the mixed researcher take on the compatibility thesis and
According to the mixed research paradigm,† researchers should
the pragmatist philosophy (especially in terms of mixing methods is
a way that works) and
the compatibility thesis (i.e., quantitative and qualitative are
compatible and they can be fruitfully mixed in many ways that can work
14.2.††† Why is the fundamental
principle of mixed research important?
According to the fundamental principle of mixed research,
the researcher should use a mixture or combination of methods that has
complementary strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses.†
principle is important because provides researcher with a logic for
mixing quantitative and qualitative research approaches.
quantitative and qualitative approaches in a haphazard way will produce
should be systematic and well though out by the researcher when planning
and designing a research study.
14.3.††† Give an
example of a within-stage mixed model research study.
In within-stage mixed model research, quantitative
and qualitative approaches are mixed within one or more stages of research.
simple example would be a study where you constructed a questionnaire that
is composed of closed-ended items (quantitative approach) and open-ended
items (qualitative approach).
14.4.††† Give an
example of an across-stage mixed model research study.
In across-stage mixed model research, quantitative
and qualitative approaches are mixed across at least two of the stages of
simple example would be a study where the researcher wishes to explore why
people willingly handle snakes in certain churches (qualitative purpose);
the researcher goes to the churches and observes the services and
informally interviews some church members (qualitative data collection);
during data analysis, the researcher enters all of the verbal data into a
computer program and then obtains word counts and calculates the
percentages for different responses (quantitative data analysis).
- In the
above example, the across-stage model mixing took place from the
qualitative data collection to the quantitative data analysis.
additional across-stage mixed model designs, take a look at Figure 14.2
(see designs 2-7). Here it is for your convenience.
14.5.††† What is the
difference between mixed model research and mixed method research?
Here are the definitions:
model research = The method where quantitative and qualitative
approaches are mixed within or across the stages of the research process.
This is where you use the within-stage mixing approach or the across-stage
mixing approach. (See study questions 14.3 and 14.4 above for within-stage
and across-stage mixing.)
method research = The method where a quantitative phase and a
qualitative phase are included in the overall research study. This is like
having a quantitative and a qualitative mini-study in the overall research
14.6.††† What kind of
study does this notation imply: qual→QUAN→qual?† Can you think of why a researcher might use
such a design?
This notation implies a dominant status sequential design.
The quantitative paradigm is given major emphasis by the researcher and the
design occurs in three separate phases. A qualitative phase occurs first; a
quantitative phase occurs second; and a qualitative phase occurs third. One
might use this design if his or her primary research question is to be
addressed by a quantitative approach but, at the same time, the researcher want
to collect some exploratory qualitative information before and after the
is one example: A researcher who typically follows the quantitative
paradigm is interested in the effect of including humor in an on-line
program developed to train employees how to write professional letters.
The researcher wants to conduct an experiment to determine the effect of
including a component in the program that includes the use of humor. The
researcher first decides to have her research participants fill out a
brief open-ended instrument before conducting the experimental study; the
instrument asks the participants how they feel about writing professional
letters, including what they like most, and what they like least. Second,
the researcher conducts the experiment (comparing the standard letter
writing training program with the same program that was modified to
include the use of humor). Third, the researcher has the participants fill
out another open-ended instrument that asks them whether they liked the
training program and to explain what they liked and what they did not
is another example: a survey researcher first conducts open-ended
interviews and focus groups to help determine the content for the survey
instrument. In stage two, a closed-ended instrument† is constructed and the data are
analyzed quantitatively (statistical analysis). Then during the third
stage, the researcher selects a person who represents the typical response
and then conducts an in-depth interview with him or her.
both of these examples there was a qualitative phase (that included the
collection of qualitative data and qualitative data analysis of those
data), followed by the major/dominant quantitative phase (that included
the collection of quantitative data and quantitative data analysis),
followed by a qualitative phase (that included qualitative data collection
and qualitative data analysis). The two qualitative phases were used to
supplement the primary focus of the research which was based on the
14.7.††† What is the
difference between a sequential and a concurrent design feature?
One major dimension on which mixed method designs are
differentiated is the time dimension. The time dimension is either sequential
or concurrent. A sequential time order means that the qualitative and
quantitative phases are conducted one after the other. A concurrent time
order means that the quantitative and qualitative phases occur at
approximately the same timeóthis is like running parallel mini-studies.
that a sequential design is important when the results of one phase will
be needed to inform the next phase and when the nature of the questions
require that a phase occurs after or before another phase. A concurrent
design can be done when both kinds of information are needed, but they can
be collected at roughly the same time without causing any problems
(logistically or informational/theoretical).
14.8.††† What are
the eight stages of the mixed research process?
Iím going to provide Figure 14.4 here, which lists the eight
each of Greene, Caracelli, and Grahamís five rationales for conducting a mixed
There are five major purposes or rationales in mixed
research. They are listed and explained in Table 14.4. Here is Table 14.4 from
14.10.† What is the
difference between quantizing and qualitizing, and are these used in mixed
method or mixed model designs?
means that you convert qualitative data into quantitative data.
means that you convert quantitative data into qualitative data.
14.11.† What kinds
of validity might be relevant in a mixed design?
All of the types of validity used in quantitative and
qualitative research can be relevant in a mixed research study because you want
the quantitative and qualitative parts to be trustworthy and defensible.
On the quantitative side, the primary kinds of validity
Statistical conclusion validity
Internal (causal) validity
External (generalizing) validity
Construct (measurement) validity
On the qualitative side, the primary kinds of validity
validity (if any cause and effect issues are addressed qualitatively)
validity (if one hopes to make generalizations based on the qualitative
All of the above forms of validity are discussed in the
lecture for Chapter 8.
Note that types of validity specifically developed for mixed
research are currently being developed.
14.12.† What are the
four potential problems involved in writing and attempting to publish a mixed
and qualitative research have traditionally used different styles of
writing; therefore, it can be challenging to strike a balance between the
two forms of writing.
audience might not be well versed in both quantitative and qualitative
research; therefore, you must be sure to define all specialized terms that
are used so that either type of reader can clearly understand what you are
research reports can be lengthy (especially mixed method studies) because
they include qualitative and quantitative parts. This can be a problem
when you want to publish your study and journals have page limitations
that you have to deal with.
research is still an emerging field; therefore, some people you deal with
(e.g., reviewers and other readers of your report) may not be open to the
use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches.†