Study Questions


Chapter 14


(Donít forget that the companion website also has multiple choice questions for each chapter that you can take for practice. You will find them here:


14.1.††† What position does the mixed researcher take on the compatibility thesis and pragmatist philosophy?

According to the mixed research paradigm,researchers should


14.2.††† Why is the fundamental principle of mixed research important?

According to the fundamental principle of mixed research, the researcher should use a mixture or combination of methods that has complementary strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses.


14.3.††† Give an example of a within-stage mixed model research study.

In within-stage mixed model research, quantitative and qualitative approaches are mixed within one or more stages of research.


14.4.††† Give an example of an across-stage mixed model research study.

In across-stage mixed model research, quantitative and qualitative approaches are mixed across at least two of the stages of research.




14.5.††† What is the difference between mixed model research and mixed method research?

Here are the definitions:


14.6.††† What kind of study does this notation imply: qual→QUAN→qual?Can you think of why a researcher might use such a design?

This notation implies a dominant status sequential design. The quantitative paradigm is given major emphasis by the researcher and the design occurs in three separate phases. A qualitative phase occurs first; a quantitative phase occurs second; and a qualitative phase occurs third. One might use this design if his or her primary research question is to be addressed by a quantitative approach but, at the same time, the researcher want to collect some exploratory qualitative information before and after the quantitative phase.




14.7.††† What is the difference between a sequential and a concurrent design feature?

One major dimension on which mixed method designs are differentiated is the time dimension. The time dimension is either sequential or concurrent. A sequential time order means that the qualitative and quantitative phases are conducted one after the other. A concurrent time order means that the quantitative and qualitative phases occur at approximately the same timeóthis is like running parallel mini-studies.



14.8.††† What are the eight stages of the mixed research process?

Iím going to provide Figure 14.4 here, which lists the eight stages.




14.9.††† Explain each of Greene, Caracelli, and Grahamís five rationales for conducting a mixed research study.


There are five major purposes or rationales in mixed research. They are listed and explained in Table 14.4. Here is Table 14.4 from page 423:




14.10.What is the difference between quantizing and qualitizing, and are these used in mixed method or mixed model designs?


14.11.What kinds of validity might be relevant in a mixed design?

All of the types of validity used in quantitative and qualitative research can be relevant in a mixed research study because you want the quantitative and qualitative parts to be trustworthy and defensible.


On the quantitative side, the primary kinds of validity include:

        Statistical conclusion validity

        Internal (causal) validity

        External (generalizing) validity

        Construct (measurement) validity


On the qualitative side, the primary kinds of validity include:


All of the above forms of validity are discussed in the lecture for Chapter 8.


Note that types of validity specifically developed for mixed research are currently being developed.


14.12.What are the four potential problems involved in writing and attempting to publish a mixed research report?


  1. Quantitative and qualitative research have traditionally used different styles of writing; therefore, it can be challenging to strike a balance between the two forms of writing.
  2. Your audience might not be well versed in both quantitative and qualitative research; therefore, you must be sure to define all specialized terms that are used so that either type of reader can clearly understand what you are saying.
  3. Mixed research reports can be lengthy (especially mixed method studies) because they include qualitative and quantitative parts. This can be a problem when you want to publish your study and journals have page limitations that you have to deal with.
  4. Mixed research is still an emerging field; therefore, some people you deal with (e.g., reviewers and other readers of your report) may not be open to the use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches.